Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, AND VECTOR SPECIFICITY OF SUGARBEET AND VEGETABLE VIRUSES

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Co-infection by two criniviruses alters accumulation of each virus in a host-specific manner and influences efficiency of virus transmission

Authors
item WINTERMANTEL, WILLIAM
item CORTEZ, ARTURO
item ANCHIETA, AMY
item Gulati Sakhuja, Anju
item HLADKY, LAURA

Submitted to: Phytopathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 29, 2008
Publication Date: December 1, 2008
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M., Cortez, A.A., Anchieta, A.G., Gulati Sakhuja, A.N., Hladky, L.L. 2008. Co-infection by two criniviruses alters accumulation of each virus in a host-specific manner and influences efficiency of virus transmission. Phytopathology 98: 1340-1345.

Interpretive Summary: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), and Tomato infections chlorosis virus (TICV), cause interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or bronzing on tomato leaves. Both viruses cause a decline in plant vigor and reduce fruit yield, and are emerging as serious production problems for field and greenhouse tomato growers in many parts of the world. The viruses have been found together in tomato, indicating that infection by one virus does not prevent infection by a second. Transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies significantly among the four different whitefly vectors of ToCV: Bemisia tabaci biotypes A and B, Trialeurodes abutilonea, and T. vaporariorum. Only T. vaporariorum can transmit TICV. In order to elucidate the effects of co-infection on virus accumulation and transmission efficiency, we established Physalis wrightii and Nicotiana benthamiana source plants, containing either TICV or ToCV alone, or both viruses together. Vectors were allowed to feed separately on all virus sources, as well as by quantitative RT-PCR, and results indicated host-specific differences in accumulation by TICV and ToCV and alteration of accumulation patterns during co-infection compared with single infection. Vector transmission efficiency of both viruses corresponded with virus concentration in the host in both single and mixed infections. This illustrates that crinivirus epidemiology is impacted not only by vector transmission specificity and incidence of hosts, but also by factors such as virus competitiveness in host plants.

Technical Abstract: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV), family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus, cause interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or bronzing on tomato leaves. Both viruses cause a decline in plant vigor and reduce fruit yield, and are emerging as serious production problems for field and greenhouse tomato growers in many parts of the world. The viruses have been found together in tomato, indicating that infection by one crinivirus does not prevent infection by a second. Transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies signifiantly among the four differenct whitefly vectors of ToCV; Bemisia tabaci biotypes A and B, Trialeurodes abutilonea, and T.vaporariorum. Only T. vaporariorum can transmit TICV. In order to elucidate the effects of co-infection on crinivirus accumulation and transmission efficiency, we established Physalis wrightii and Nicotiana benthamiana source plants, containing either TICV to ToCV alone, or both viruses together. Vectors were allowed to feed separately on all virus sources, as well as virus-free plants, then were transferred to young plants of both host species. Plants were tested by quantitative RT-PCR, and results indicated host-specific differences in accumulation by TICV and ToCV and alteration of accumulation patterns during co-infection compared with single infection. Vector tranmission efficiency of both viruses corresponded with virus concentration in the host in both single and mixed infections. This illustrates that crinivirus epidemiology is impacted not only by vector transmission specificity and incidence of hosts, but also by factors such as virus competitiveness in host plants.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page