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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF LAND AND WATER RESOURCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN THE NORTHEAST U.S.

Location: Pasture Systems & Watershed Management Research

Title: Use of industrial by-products to sorb and retain phosphorus

Authors
item Penn, Chad - OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV
item Bryant, Ray
item Callahan, Michael - CATENA GROUP INC
item Mcgrath, J - UNIV OF MARYLAND

Submitted to: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 15, 2010
Publication Date: March 21, 2011
Citation: Penn, C.J., Bryant, R.B., Callahan, M.P., Mcgrath, J.M. 2011. Use of industrial by-products to sorb and retain phosphorus. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 42:633-644.

Interpretive Summary: Unless beneficial uses can be identified for industrial byproducts, they must be disposed of by landfilling, a practice that adds cost to the industrial product. Some byproducts are known to sorb phosphorus (P) from solution, rendering it insoluble. Whereas P in manure that is surface applied to high P soils is most susceptible to loss as soluble P in runoff in the few days after application, a strategy of amending manures with byproducts to reduce soluble P prior to land application affords one means of lessening the environmental impacts of manure application. In this study, we evaluated the potential of six industrial byproducts for use as phosphorus sorbing materials in solutions and manures. Those byproducts selected for evaluation included two different acid mine drainage treatment residuals (AMDR1 and AMDR2); water treatment residual (WTR) from a drinking water treatment facility in Lancaster, Pennsylvania; fly ash; bauxite mining residual; and “synthetic” gypsum, which is a byproduct from a coal fired power plant. These byproducts were amended to dairy, swine, and poultry manures for the purpose of reducing soluble P and potential for P losses in runoff immediately following surface application. AMDR1, AMDR2, and WTR were the most effective at P sorption in dairy manure. All materials, with the exception of the bauxite residual, were effective in swine manure. Gypsum was very effective in poultry manure, even at low rates of addition. AMDR1, AMDR2, and WTR were somewhat effective in poultry manure when applied at higher rates. Phosphorus sorption effectiveness and mechanisms were strongly influenced by the chemical environment that is characteristic of the various types of manure.

Technical Abstract: The potential of six industrial byproducts for use as phosphorus sorbing materials (PSMs) in solutions and manures was evaluated. These included two different acid mine drainage treatment residuals (AMDR1 and AMDR2); water treatment residual (WTR) from a drinking water treatment facility in Lancaster, Pennsylvania; fly ash; bauxite mining residual; and “synthetic” gypsum, which is a byproduct from a coal fired power plant. Characterization of the byproducts and their mechanisms for sorption and retention of inorganic phosphorus (P) from solution identified those PSMs that sorbed primarily by an iron and aluminum (Fe/Al) mechanism, those that sorbed primarily by a calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) mechanism, and those that sorbed by both mechanisms. These PSMs were amended to dairy, swine, and poultry manures for the purpose of reducing soluble P and potential for P losses in runoff immediately following surface application. AMDR1, AMDR2, and WTR were the most effective at P sorption in dairy manure via Fe/Al. All materials, with the exception of the bauxite residual, were effective in swine manure; P was sorbed by the Fe/Al mechanism and the Ca/Mg mechanism. Gypsum, which sorbs primarily by the Ca/Mg mechanism, was very effective in poultry manure, even at low rates of addition. AMDR1, AMDR2, and WTR, all of which demonstrated moderate degrees of sorption in the Ca-P fraction, were somewhat effective in poultry manure when applied at higher rates. Phosphorus sorption effectiveness and mechanisms were strongly influenced by the chemical environment.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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