Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 9, 2008
Publication Date: October 9, 2008
Citation: Kim, K., Gesch, R.W. 2008. Adaptability of cuphea, a new oilseed crop, to climate and soil environments [abstract][CD-ROM]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting. Oct. 5-9, 2008, Houston, TX. Technical Abstract: Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate influences of climate and soil characteristics on growth, yield, and seed oil of several cuphea genotypes differing in their fatty acid profiles and agronomic characteristics. Six genotypes [PSR23 (Cuphea viscosissima x C. lanceolata), HC-10, blizzard, Cuphea wrightii, C. lutea, and VS-6 (C. lanceolata)] were grown at experimental sites in ND, MN, IA, and IL. Air temperature, precipitation, and soil water content were monitored at each site and soil samples (0-15 and 15-60 cm) were taken before planting and after harvest for chemical and physical analysis. Seed oil and fatty acid profiles were analyzed. Growing season air temperatures and precipitation increased from north to south (ND< MN< IA< IL). PSR23, HC10, and blizzard appeared to be more regionally adapted than VS-6, wrightii, and lutea. Regardless of genotype, high temperatures affected seed yield. Seed yields were as much as 3-4 times greater in MN and ND than at the IA and IL sites. Oil content for PSR23 was 5-6% greater in MN and ND than IA and IL. Although oil content was greater at the northerly sites, the content of key fatty acids such as C10, C12, and C8 for various genotypes increased with more southerly latitude. These results will aid in developing regional cuphea-genotype management stategies based on site-specific climate changes and temporal and spatial soil environment as well as identify key plant characteristics for future improvement.