Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2008
Citation: Butte, N.F. 2006. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents. In: Koletzko, B., editor. Pediatric Nutrition in Practice. Basel, Switzerland: Karger. p. 31-36. Technical Abstract: Energy requirements of infants, children, and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for energy intake are based upon estimates of TEE and an allowance for growth. For infants, TEE is predicted from measurements of TEE by the stable isotope method, doubly labeled water (DLW). For children and adolescents, heart rate monitoring and the DLW method were used to predict TEE. The energy cost of growth was derived from average velocities and the composition of weight gain. Even though energy requirements also are presented for varying levels of physical activity, moderately active lifestyles are strongly encouraged for children and adolescents to maintain fitness and health and to reduce the risk of overnutrition.