IMPROVEMENT OF HARD RED SPRING AND DURUM WHEAT FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE AND QUALITY USING GENETICS AND GENOMICS
Location: Cereal Crops Research
Title: Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines
Submitted to: Journal of Cereal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 17, 2009
Publication Date: July 1, 2009
Citation: Klindworth, D.L., Hareland, G.A., Elias, E.M., Faris, J.D., Chao, S., Xu, S.S. 2009. Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines. Journal of Cereal Science 50: 29-35
Interpretive Summary: Protein content is a major factor for high quality durum wheat both for improved nutritive value and cooking quality. Wild emmer wheat is a useful source of genes that produce higher grain protein content. Sets of durum lines in which specific chromosomes from wild emmer accessions PI 481521 and PI 478742 replace a chromosome from durum wheat have been developed. Because these lines genetically differ from the durum cultivar ‘Langdon’ by only a single wild emmer chromosome, any differences in the performance of these lines for agronomic or quality traits can be attributed to genes on the wild emmer chromosome. We grew the two sets, composed of 23 lines, at two locations in North Dakota in 2005-06. Lines were evaluated for grain yield, protein content, and other quality traits. Lines were milled to produce semolina, the raw material used to produce pasta products. None of the lines had better grain yielding ability than Langdon. Among quality traits, potentially useful variation was found for protein content, kernel size and weight, semolina yield, and semolina color. Seven lines had higher protein content than Langdon. Ranked in order for protein content (high to low), the seven lines were LDN742-6B, LDN521-7B, LDN521-5B, LDN742-7A, LDN742-5B, LDN 521-1A, and LDN521-2A. The LDN742-6B line was shown to carry the same gene for high protein content as is found in Israel A, and this gene has already been intensively studied. The remaining six lines are potential sources of new genes for high protein content. The LDN521-2A line may be useful because besides improved protein content, it also had improved kernel weight and semolina extraction.
Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides) has been a useful source of genes for high grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Prior studies have found other useful genes for agronomic and quality traits in Langdon durum - T. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) disomic substitutions. The objective of this study was to test the agronomic and quality characteristics of 23 LDN-DIC substitutions based on accessions PI 481521 (LDN521) and PI 478742 (LDN742), with emphasis on finding new genes for high GPC. The 23 LDN-DIC substitutions and 7 checks were grown in replicated yield trials at Fargo and Prosper, ND in 2005-06. The lines were evaluated for yield, plant height, and heading date. Quality traits, including GPC and 11 others, were evaluated in the quality laboratory. None of the lines were significantly better than Langdon (LDN) for grain yield. Potentially useful variation for thousand kernel weight, kernel size, semolina extraction, and semolina brightness and color, was found among the lines. Seven lines had significantly higher GPC than LDN, but significantly lower than in LDNIsA-6B (Gpc-B1). Ranked in order for GPC (high to low), the seven lines were LDN742-6B, LDN521-7B, LDN521-5B, LDN742-7A, LDN742-5B, LDN 521-1A, and LDN521-2A, suggesting that chromosomes 1A, 2A, 5B, and 7B of PI 481521 and 7A, 5B, and 6B of PI 478742 may carry high GPC genes. LDN742-6B, using allele specific marker Xuhw89, was shown to carry the same Gpc-B1 allele as is present in Israel A. The remaining six lines with high GPC are potential sources of new high GPC genes for durum wheat. Further studies are needed to determine if high GPC in these lines is monogenically inherited and not correlated with yield.