|Li, M.H. - MISSISSIPPI ST. UNIV.|
|Robinson, Edwin - MISSISSIPPI ST. UNIV.|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: November 15, 2007
Publication Date: February 25, 2008
Citation: Li, M. H., Robinson, E., Lim, C.E. 2008. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish feeds. In: Lim, C.E., Webster, C.D., and Lee, C.S., editors. Alternative Protein Sources in Aquaculture. New York, NY: Haworth Press. p. 95-116. Technical Abstract: Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and are generally less expensive than fish meal. Thus, substitution of these protein sources for fish meal would decrease feed costs. These products are high in protein and generally digestible to most fish. However, protein quality and for some species, palatability of these protein sources are somewhat inferior to that of fish meal. Although meat and bone meal is a good source of minerals, its high ash content may limit its use in fish feeds because of possible mineral imbalance. Research has demonstrated that these products and their mixtures can partially or totally replace fish meal in fish feeds depending on fish species. Generally, meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal or a proper mixture of these products may be used at levels of 5% to 10% in fish feeds provided that the feed is formulated to contain adequate amounts of essential amino acids. If possible, the mixture of meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal should be used because of its more balanced amino acids and lower ash content than meat and bone meal alone. However, because of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy or “mad cow” disease, many countries prohibit the use of certain animal by-products in animal feeds, especially feeds for ruminant animals. The European Union currently places a total ban on the use of meat and bone meal in feeds of all farmed animals. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration prohibits the use of meat and bone meal from ruminant animals in feeds for the ruminants. Some fish feed manufacturers in the U.S. have voluntarily discontinued the use of meat and bone meal for precautionary measures. Due to government regulations and public safety concerns, there is uncertainty about the future use of these animal by-products in fish feeds.