Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 10, 2008
Publication Date: March 10, 2009
Citation: Nielsen, F.H. 2009. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus. In: Driskell, J.A. Nutrition and Exercise concerns of Middle Age. Baton Rouge, FL:CRC Press. p. 193-218. Technical Abstract: Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consume enough calcium to prevent bone loss and fractures; an intake at the AI level (1.2 g/day) should accomplish this. Phosphorus intakes in the U.S indicate that neither phosphorus deficiency nor excess is a nutritional concern for healthy middle-aged adults. Based on dietary surveys, sub-clinical or chronic latent magnesium deficiency, which impairs energy utilization and exercise performance, may occur in significant numbers in middle-aged adults. Sub-clinical magnesium deficiency may also impair heart function, result in bone loss, and amplify oxidative stress induced by exercise. Balance studies indicate that intakes of more than 220 mg magnesium/day are needed to prevent adverse effects of chronic latent magnesium deficiency. Consuming amounts greater than the RDA for magnesium (420 mg and 320 mg/day for men and women, respectively) is unlikely to provide any exercise performance benefits for healthy physically active middle-aged adults.