Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: February 28, 2008
Publication Date: February 28, 2008
Citation: Reeves, W.K. 2008. Control of Epizotic Hemmorrhagic Disease and Bluetongue in Cervids with a Focus on Vector Management. Meeting Abstract. North American Deer Farmers Association Annual Conference, 28 February-1 March 2008, Fort Wayne, IN.
Arthropod-borne diseases are a threat to the cervid livestock industry. These diseases can be restricted to a region of the USA or in some cases threaten the industry in all of the lower 48 states. The agents of these diseases include filarial nematodes, bacteria, rickettsiae, and viruses. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue are among the most serious insect-transmitted threats to the cervid livestock industry. Tiny flies commonly called biting midges, punkies, or no-see-ums transmit the viruses that cause these diseases. One species of biting midge has been incriminated as the primary vector of bluetongue viruses in the USA, however we do not know all of the vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. Any control of epizootic hemorrhagic disease or bluetongue includes an integrated disease management program. Insect control and disease monitoring are essential components of a good management program. However, risk assessment and a reasonable cost estimate are also critical in successful disease management. I will discuss several options for disease control. Individual farmers should consider their unique situation when determining how and when to control disease outbreaks. For example, application of pesticides to control biting midges is not a sound monetary decision when disease outbreaks are unlikely or when control of insects by pesticide application are unlikely to effect biting midge populations. Some expensive but permanent habitat modifications can help to reduce insect populations over the long term. In the face of an approaching disease outbreak some management practices must be implemented weeks before the disease reaches a farm or local area.