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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Peanut Yield, Market Grade, and Economics with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

Authors
item Sorensen, Ronald
item Lamb, Marshall

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 12, 2009
Publication Date: October 29, 2009
Citation: Sorensen, R.B., Lamb, M.C. 2009. Peanut Yield, Market Grade, and Economics with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings. Peanut Science. 36:85-91.

Interpretive Summary: Surface drip irrigation, due to its simplicity, has been used to irrigate vegetables and high value crops for many years. Drip irrigation can precisely deliver water, nutrients, and chemicals to the crop root zone. One of the greatest advantages of using surface drip irrigation is that the system can be installed easily with low initial investment and provide flexible irrigation schedules without using large pumps and wells. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) on peanut in the humid southeast has been effective in increasing pod yield and grade specifically kernel size distribution compared with nonirrigated peanut production. Little research has been done on the use of surface drip irrigation in peanut production and the effects on peanut yield and quality. Surface drip irrigation laterals were placed next to crop rows and in alternate row middles to document crop yield, grade and gross/partial economic returns for surface drip irrigation system compared with non-irrigation practices. Surface drip tubing was installed at two sites on a Faceville (Site 1) fine sandy loam (Fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudults) and a Greenville (Site 2) fine sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Kandiudults) with about 1 to 3% slope, respectively. Peanut cultivar ‘Georgia green’ was planted in both single and twin-row configuration with two lateral orientations. Peanut cultivar ‘Virugard’ was planted in a twin-row configuration with two lateral spacings. Pod yield, farmer stock grade, and economic returns were determined for the 2002, 2003, and 2004 growing season. Peanut irrigated with surface drip, both lateral orientations, had greater yield, grade, and gross revenue compared with non-irrigated regime. Averaged across all years, peanut irrigated with surface drip (both lateral spacings) had greater yield, market grade, and gross revenue compared with non-irrigated regime. Subtracting the cost of the drip tubing showed that laterals spaced at 3 ft are not cost effective ($-53/ac) while those spaced at 6 ft returned an average $49/ac compared with non-irrigation. This assumes drip tubing is replaced on a yearly basis. If tubing is used for longer than one season, these revenue values will change. There were yield differences at Site 1 across years and associative differences with grade and revenue. Differences can be attributed to yearly variations in climatic patterns and irrigation management. Site 2 was more stable with reference to yield, grade and revenue when compared with Site 1. This was probably due to slope and aspects characteristics associated with each site and not necessarily with soil type. Both Sites 1 and 2 responded positively to twin-row configuration compared with the single row orientation. Twin-row orientation had over 290 lbs/ac greater yield, 1% more total sound mature kernels (TSMK), and over $60/ac compared with single row orientation. Cultivar ‘Georgia Green’ had about 450 lbs/ac higher yield compared with ‘Virugard’ (3609 lbs/ac). When using surface drip irrigation, a grower can use an alternate row middle lateral spacing without loss of yield, grade, or revenue compared with one lateral per crop row while reducing lateral tubing cost by half compared with laterals spaced adjacent each crop row.

Technical Abstract: Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows and in alternate row middles to document crop yield, market grade and gross/partial economic returns for this type of irrigation system compared with non-irrigation practices. A surface drip irrigation system was installed at two sites on a Faceville (Site 1) fine sandy loam (Fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudults) and a Greenville (Site 2) fine sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Kandiudults) with 3 and 1% slope, respectively. Peanut cultivar ‘Georgia green’ was planted in both single and twin-row configuration with two lateral spacings. Peanut cultivar ‘Virugard’ was planted in a twin-row configuration with two lateral spacings. Pod yield, farmer stock grade, and economic returns were determined for 2002, 2003, and 2004 growing seasons. Averaged across all years, peanut irrigated with surface drip (both lateral spacings) had greater yield, market grade, and gross revenue compared with non-irrigated regime. Subtracting the cost of the drip tubing showed that laterals spaced at 0.91 m are not cost effective ($-132/ha) while those spaced at 1.83 m returned an average $120/ha compared with non-irrigation. Pod yield and market grade was more stable at Site 2 compared with Site 1 which was probably due to slope and aspect characteristics associated with each site and not necessarily with soil type. Twin-row spacing had over 330 kg/ha greater pod yield, 1% more total sound mature kernels (TSMK), and over $150/ha gross revenue compared with single row spacing. Cultivar ‘Georgia Green’ had over 500 kg/ha higher yield compared with ‘Virugard’ (4056 kg/ha). When using surface drip irrigation in these soil types, it is recommended that a grower use alternate row middle lateral spacing without loss of yield, market grade, or revenue compared with laterals adjacent each crop row or with non-irrigation.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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