Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus

Authors
item LEE, STEPHEN
item COOK, DANIEL
item PANTER, KIP
item GARDNER, DALE
item Ralphs, Michael
item Motteram, Ernie - WSU
item PFISTER, JAMES
item Gay, Clive - WSU

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 24, 2007
Publication Date: November 27, 2007
Repository URL: http://www.pprl.ars.usda.gov
Citation: Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Motteram, E.S., Pfister, J.A., Gay, C. 2007. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Web release 11/27/2007 Article DOI: 10.1021/jf0723110 Journal releae Volume 55, Number 26, pp. 10649-10655.

Interpretive Summary: Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that can cause birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The alkaloid responsible for the birth defects was present in both of the lupine species associated with the crooked calf outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential of the plant to cause crooked calf disease, and must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock.

Technical Abstract: Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The teratogenic alkaloid, anagyrine, was present in both of the lupine species responsible for the high outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential teratogenicity, and must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page