|Choi, I - DAEGU UNIV, SOUTH KOREA|
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2008
Publication Date: October 1, 2008
Repository URL: http://japr.fass.org/cgi/content/full/17/4/454.
Citation: Choi, I.H., Moore Jr, P.A. 2008. Effect of various litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen content of poultry litter. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 17(4):454-462. Interpretive Summary: Ammonia emissions from poultry litter contributes to atmospheric pollution, negatively effects bird and worker health, and results in a lower value fertilizer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen content of litter. The products evaluated were alum, liquid alum, high acid alum, aluminum chloride, fly ash, PLT™, and Poultry Guard™ . Two laboratory studies were conducted for 42 d each. The treatments were mixed in the upper 1 cm of litter and ammonia loss was monitored. Dry alum, liquid alum, and high acid alum significantly reduced ammonia emissions compared to the untreated litter (77-96%), with higher rates resulting in better ammonia control. PLT™ reduced NH3 volatilization by 76-87% and aluminum chloride decreased NH3 volatilization by 48-92%. Litter treated with alum, liquid alum, A7, PLT™, and AlCl3 treated litter had a lower pH and a higher N content than the controls. In contrast, litter treated with Poultry Guard™ and fly ash resulted in a higher pH and were ineffective in reducing ammonia volatilization and increasing nitrogen contents in Exp. 1. However, in Exp. 2, Poultry Guard™ was effective in reducing ammonia loss. The results of this study indicated that the decreases in ammonia volatilization were generally related to lower litter pH.
Technical Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry manure contributes to atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution, negatively effects poultry performance and reduces the fertilizer value of manure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O), liquid alum, high acid alum (A7), aluminum chloride (AlCl3.6H2O), fly ash, Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT™), and Poultry Guard™ (PG) litter amendments on NH3 volatilization and N contents in litter. Two laboratory studies were conducted for 42 d each. The treatments in Exp.1, which were mixed in the upper 1 cm of litter, were 4 g alum, 8 g alum, 8.66 g liquid alum, 17.3 g liquid alum, 11.2 g A7, 22.4 g A7, 4 g PG, 4 g PLT™, 4 g fly ash, and 4 g AlCl3/100g litter. The treatments for Exp. 2 were identical to Exp. 1 except the fly ash treatment was dropped and an additional 4g alum/100 g litter treatment was added, which was incorporated totally within the litter. The various rates of dry alum, liquid alum, and A7 significantly reduced NH3 volatilization compared to the controls; with reductions ranging from 77 to 96% for Exp. 1 and from 78 to 96% for Exp. 2, respectively. PLT™ reduced NH3 volatilization by 76 and 87% for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Aluminum chloride decreased NH3 volatilization by 48 and 92% for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Litter treated with alum, liquid alum, A7, PLT™, and AlCl3 treated litter had a lower pH and a higher N content than the controls in Exp. 1 and 2. In contrast, PG and fly ash resulted in a higher pH and were ineffective in reducing NH3 volatilization and increasing N contents in Exp. 1. However, in Exp. 2, PG was effective in reducting NH3 loss. The results of this study indicated that the decrease in NH3 volatilization was chiefly associated with reduction in litter pH.