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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUTS

Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research

Title: Breeding a hypoallergenic peanut.

Authors
item Maleki, Soheila
item Charles, Tysheena
item Schmitt, David
item Islieb, Thomas - NORTH CAROLINA UNIV.

Submitted to: United States Japan Natural Resources Protein Panel
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 20, 2007
Publication Date: October 21, 2007
Citation: Maleki, S.J., Perkins, T.J., Schmitt, D.A., Islieb, T.G. 2007. Breeding a hypoallergenic peanut. United States Japan Natural Resources Protein Panel.

Interpretive Summary: Approximately 700 varieties of peanut, including an irradiated variety, were previously screened to determine if variations could be found in the levels of allergenic proteins, Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Some irradiated peanuts were found to contain mutations resulting in the lack of one of the allergen isoforms, or showed reduced levels of some allergic proteins. These varieties were bred towards producing progeny missing more than one of the allergen isoforms. The seeds produced from the breeding (the next generation) of varieties of peanuts that were missing either an Ara h 2, or Ara h 3 protein, both major peanut allergens, were screened using anti-Ara h 2 and 3 antibodies, and serum antibodies from allergic individuals to determine if there were any peanuts that lacked both Ara h 2 and Ara h 3. We observed that some of the crossbred peanuts were missing either a form of Ara h 3, or a form of Ara h 2, and other peanuts were missing both. Therefore, through conventional breeding practices, it is possible to eliminate more than one allergenic protein towards ultimately reducing the severity of the allergic response to peanuts upon accidental ingestion.

Technical Abstract: Approximately 700 varieties of peanut, including irradiated mutants, were previously screened to determine if variations could be found in the levels of allergenic proteins, Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Some irradiated peanuts were found to contain mutations resulting in the lack of one of the allergen isoforms, or showed reduced levels of these proteins. These varieties were crossbred towards producing progeny missing more than one of the allergen isoforms. The F2 generation produced by crossbreeding peanuts that were missing either an Ara h 2 or Ara h 3 isoforms were homogenized and the proteins were extracted. The proteins were screened using anti-Ara h 2 and 3 antibodies, and serum IgE from allergic individuals to determine if there were any peanuts that lacked isoforms of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 3. We observed that some of the crossbred peanuts were missing either an isoform of Ara h 3, or the higher molecular weight isoform of Ara h 2, and other peanuts were missing both. The observed numbers of double-mutant lines conformed to the 15:1 mendelian dihybrid ratio. Through conventional breeding practices, it is possible to eliminate more than one allergenic protein towards ultimately reducing sensitization ability and/or the severity of the allergic response to peanuts. Future studies will involve crossing these peanuts that lacked both isoforms with peanuts that have reduced levels of Ara h 1, or are missing other isoforms of Ara h 2 or Ara h 3.

Last Modified: 9/20/2014
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