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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Age and dietary form of vitamin K affect menaquinone-4 concentrations in male Fischer 344 rats

Authors
item Booth, Sarah
item Peterson, James - JM USDA HNRCA AT TUFTS
item Smith, Donald
item Shea, Kyla - JM USDA HNRCA AT TUFTS
item Chamberland, John - JM USDA HNRCA AT TUFTS
item Denissova, Natalia

Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 20, 2007
Publication Date: February 20, 2008
Citation: Booth, S.L., Peterson, J., Smith, D., Shea, K., Chamberland, J., Denissova, N. 2008. Age and dietary form of vitamin K affect menaquinone-4 concentrations in male Fischer 344 rats. Journal of Nutrition. 138:492-96.

Interpretive Summary: In some tissues, phylloquinone, the primary dietary form of vitamin K, is converted to another form of vitamin K called menaquinone-4. Menaquinone-4 may have biological roles that are different to those traditionally identified with vitamin K. Male rats of different ages were used to compare conversion of another dietary form of vitamin K, 2',3'-dihydrophylloquinone, to menaquinone-4 with an equivalent dose of phylloquinone. Animals were fed phylloquinone or dihydrophylloquinone for 28 days. Animals fed dihydrophylloquinone had significantly higher dihydrophylloquinone concentrations in the liver compared to the phylloquinone concentrations among those fed equivalent amounts of phylloquinone. Menaquinone-4 was the primary form of vitamin K in serum, spleen, kidney, testes, bone marrow and brain fractions. In the dihydrophylloquinone group, menaquinone-4 concentrations were lower in kidney, heart, brain (myelin), testes and bone marrow. The dihydrophylloquinone group also had lower dihydrophylloquinone concentrations in the kidney, heart and bone marrow compared to phylloquinone concentrations in the phylloquinone group. These data suggest that dihydrophylloquinone, which has similar biochemical structures compared to phylloquinone, is absorbed but there is less delivery to most tissues which results in less conversion to menaquinone-4. Dihydrophylloquinone may be a useful model for the study of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency.

Technical Abstract: Phylloquinone, the primary dietary form of vitamin K, is converted to menaquinone-4 (MK-4) in certain tissues. MK-4 may have tissue-specific roles independent to those traditionally identified with vitamin K. Fischer 344 male rats of different ages (2, 12 and 24mo, n=20 per age group) were used to compare conversion of another dietary form of vitamin K, 2',3'-dihydrophylloquinone, to MK-4 with an equivalent dose of phylloquinone. Animals were age and diet group pair fed phylloquinone or dihydrophylloquinone (198+/-9.0 and 172+/-13.0 ug/kg diet) for 28 days. Animals fed dihydrophylloquinone had significantly higher dihydrophylloquinone concentrations in the liver compared to the phylloquinone concentrations among those fed equimolar amounts of phylloquinone (p<0.005). MK-4 was the primary form of vitamin K in serum, spleen, kidney, testes, bone marrow and brain myelin fractions. In the dihydrophylloquinone group, MK-4 concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, heart, cortex (myelin) and striatum (myelin) (p<0.05), with a non-significant trend in testes and bone marrow (p<0.1). The dihydrophylloquinone group also had lower dihydrophylloquinone concentrations in the kidney, heart and bone marrow compared to phylloquinone concentrations in the phylloquinone group. These data suggest that dihydrophylloquinone, which differs from phylloquinone in its side phytyl chain, is absorbed but there is less delivery to peripheral tissue, which results in less conversion to MK-4. Dihydrophylloquinone may be a useful model for the study of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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