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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Pod Yield and Mineral Concentration of Four Peanut Cultivars Following Gypsum Application With Subsurface Drip Irrigation

Authors
item Sorensen, Ronald
item Butts, Christopher

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 30, 2008
Publication Date: July 1, 2008
Citation: Sorensen, R.B., Butts, C.L. 2008. Yield Response of Four Peanut Cultivars to Calcium with Subsurface Drip Irrigation. Peanut Science. 2008. 35:86-91.

Interpretive Summary: Calcium is a highly required mineral for best peanut yield and grade. Low concentrations of calcium in the peanut pegging zone can result in low pod yield, grade, and germination. Previous research has shown little or no movement of calcium from the roots to the leaves and back to the pod. Calcium must move directly from the soil into the developing pod. Two conditions must occur for calcium uptake to the plant or to the pod; 1) There must be enough soil moisture in the pod zone for water uptake by roots and pods, and 2) calcium must be present in sufficient concentrations to dissolve into the soil water for uptake into the roots and pods. If one or both of these conditions does not occur, then yield and grade may be reduced. Additions of calcium sulfate (gypsum) and irrigation by overhead sprinkler systems assure that neither water nor calcium is deficient. A 2-year study (2004 and 2005) was conducted where gypsum was applied to four peanut cultivars and irrigated with subsurface drip to determine pod yield, quality, and mineral concentration of peanut. Gypsum was applied at 0, 500 and 1000 lbs/ac to peanut cultivars C99R, Georgia Green (GG), GAO2C (O2C), and NCV-11 (NCV). Irrigation water was applied daily except when precipitation exceeded the estimated daily water requirement. Applications of gypsum increased soil Calcium and Sulfur by 5 and 20%, respectively, compared with the untreated control. Soil Calcium to Potassium (Ca:K) ratio should be 3:1 for best yields. Ca:K ratio before gypsum additions was 7.6:1 and after application increased to 9.8:1. Calcium concentrations in peanut leaves were 3 and 14 times higher compared Ca concentrations in pegs or pods, respectively, independent of gypsum application rate. Cultivars Georgia Green and NCV-11 had an average yield over 2900 lbs/ac while C99R and O2C averaged just over 2500 lbs/ac. Germination rates were higher with added gypsum and in cultivars C99R and O2C. There was no difference in vigor with gypsum application but there was an increase of vigor with C99R and O2C compared with GG and NCV. Kernel Ca concentration was higher with added gypsum. Plots that are irrigated with SDI have similar pod yield, farmer stock grade, and quality as literature values reported from overhead or non-irrigated regimes. Gypsum applications greater than 500 lbs/ac may not be needed to increase yield or Ca level in kernels when irrigated using subsurface drip irrigation on these soils.

Technical Abstract: A 2-year study (2004 and 2005) was conducted where gypsum was applied to four peanut cultivars and irrigated with subsurface drip to determine pod yield, quality, and mineral concentration of peanut. Gypsum was applied at 0, 560 and 1120 kg/ha to peanut cultivars C99R, Georgia Green (GG), GAO2C (O2C), and NCV-11 (NCV). Irrigation water was applied daily except when precipitation exceeded the estimated daily water requirement. Soil Ca and S increased as gypsum was applied, 5% and 20%, respectively, compared with the untreated control. Soil Calcium to Potassium (Ca:K) ratio before gypsum additions was 7.6 and after application increased to 9.8. Calcium concentrations were 3 and 14 times higher in leaves compared with pegs and pods, respectively, independent of gypsum application rate. Sulfur concentrations were 1.4 times higher in leaves compared to pegs and pods across all gypsum application rates. The cultivars GG and NCV had the same pod yield. Cultivars C99R and O2C had the same yield as NCV but were less than GG. Cultivars GG and NCV had an average yield over 3300 kg/ha while C99R and O2C averaged just over 2900 kg/ha. Germination rates were higher with added gypsum and in cultivars C99R and O2C. There was no difference in vigor with gypsum application but there was an increase of vigor with C99R and O2C compared with GG and NCV. Kernel Ca concentration was higher with added gypsum. Plots that are irrigated with SDI have similar pod yield, farmer stock grade, and quality as literature values reported from overhead or non-irrigated regimes. Gypsum applications greater than 560 kg/ha may not be needed to increase pod yield or Ca levels in kernels.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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