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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Acaricides for controlling ticks on cattle and the problem of acaricide resistance

Authors
item George, John
item Pound, Joe
item Davey, Ronald

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 25, 2007
Publication Date: October 20, 2008
Citation: George, J.E., Pound, J.M., Davey, R.B. 2008. Acaricides for controlling ticks on cattle and the problem of acaricide resistance. In: Bowman, A.S., Nuttall, P., editors. Ticks Biology, Disease and Control. Cambridge, New York:Cambridge University Press. p. 408-423.

Interpretive Summary: Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions for treating cattle to protect them against ticks revolutionized tick and tick-borne disease control programs. Arsenic treatments for cattle were used for about 40 years before the evolution of resistance of ticks to the chemical, and the development and marketing of synthetic organic pesticides after World War II provided superior alternative products. Most of the major groups of the new organic pesticides are represented on the list of chemicals used to control ticks on cattle. Unfortunately, the successive evolution of resistance of ticks to pesticides in each chemical group with the concomitant reduction in the usefulness of a group of pesticides is a major reason for the variety of pesticide products marketed for the control of ticks. Whether a producer chooses a traditional method for treating cattle with a pesticide or uses a new method, the benefits, limitations and potential problems with each application method and product must be understood. Simulation models and research were the basis of recommendations for tick control strategies advocating approaches that reduced reliance on pesticides. These recommendations for controlling ticks on cattle are in harmony with recommendations for reducing the rate of evolution of resistance of ticks to pesticides. There is a need to transfer knowledge about tick control and resistance mitigation strategies to cattle producers.

Technical Abstract: Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions in dipping vats for treating cattle to protect them against ticks revolutionized tick and tick-borne disease control programs. Arsenic dips for cattle were used for about 40 years before the evolution of resistance of ticks to the chemical, and the development and marketing of synthetic organic acaricides after World War II provided superior alternative products. Most of the major groups of organic pesticides are represented on the list of chemicals used to control ticks on cattle. Unfortunately, the successive evolution of resistance of ticks to acaricides in each chemical group with the concomitant reduction in the usefulness of a group of acaricides is a major reason for the diversity of acaricides. Whether a producer chooses a traditional method for treating cattle with an acaricide or uses a new method, the benefits, limitations and potential problems with each application method and product must be recognized. Simulation models and research were the basis of recommendations for tick control strategies advocating approaches that reduced reliance on acaricides. These recommendations for controlling ticks on cattle are in harmony with recommendations for reducing the rate of selection for acaricide resistance. There is a need to transfer knowledge about tick control and resistance mitigation strategies to cattle producers.

Last Modified: 11/23/2014
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