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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and NO production by macrophages

Authors
item Bishop, Jeanette - COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY
item Mejia, J. Santiago - COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY
item Perez DE Leon, Adalberto - SYNEXIS
item Tabachnick, Walter - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item Titus, Richard - COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2006
Publication Date: September 1, 2006
Citation: Bishop, J.V., Mejia, J.S., Perez De Leon, A.A., Tabachnick, W.J., Titus, R.G. 2006. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and NO production by macrophages. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75(3):532-536.

Interpretive Summary: Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are vectors of several arbovirus pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals in North America resulting in substantial economic losses to the U.S. livestock industry. Previously it was shown that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many blood feeding arthropods, contains numerous proteins that affect the stoppage of bleeding and early events in the inflammatory response. These affects may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the ability of C. sonorensis saliva to modify or regulate immune functions. These immunomodulatory properties were evaluated using C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts and mouse immune cells. The authors discuss the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrates. Spleen cells, treated proteins that encourage cell division (mitogens), in the presence of C. sonorensis salivary gland homogenates were significantly affected in the proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less Nitric Oxide. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

Technical Abstract: Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North America that cause substantial economic losses to the U.S. livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in the proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
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