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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF CROPS IN THE NORTHEASTERN U.S. Title: Parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines by Binodoxys communis: the role of aphid defensive behavior and parasitoid reproductive performance

Authors
item Wyckhuys, Kris - UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
item Stone, Laura - ST. OLAF COLLEGE
item Desneux, Nicolas - UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
item Hoelmer, Kim
item Hopper, Keith
item Heimpel, George - UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

Submitted to: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 20, 2007
Publication Date: February 25, 2008
Repository URL: http://doi:10.1017/S000748530800566X
Citation: Wyckhuys, K.A.G., Stone, L., Desneux, N., Hoelmer, K., Hopper, K.R., and Heimpel, G.E. 2008. Parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines by Binodoxys communis: the role of aphid defensive behavior and parasitoid reproductive performance. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 98:361-370.

Interpretive Summary: The exotic Asian soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was discovered in North America in 2000 and has become a major pest of soybeans, causing substantial yield losses and resulting in costly pesticide applications. Foreign exploration in Asia identified a parasitoid of soybean aphid, Binodoxys communis, which we evaluated in laboratory studies for its efficacy in attacking soybean aphid. We examined B. communis preferences for different developmental stages of the aphid and investigated consequences of these preferences for the fitness of the parasitoid. We also determined to what extent aphid defensive behaviors influenced parasitoid preferences for these stages. Our research showed that B. communis readily attacks and develops on the various immature aphid stages as well as adults. Parasitism trials revealed identical parasitism rates of the various stages, with a high proportion of successful attacks on small and intermediate aphid instars, with few consequences for B. communis fitness. A variety of defensive behaviors were employed by the aphids, including body raising, kicking and body rotation. These defenses were employed most effectively by larger aphids, contributing to a lower parasitism rate of these stages. We discuss implications for potential establishment, spread and biological control efficacy of B. communis following its release in North America during the summer of 2007.

Technical Abstract: One of the candidate natural enemies for release against the exotic soybean aphid Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in North America is the Asian parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We examined B. communis preferences for different developmental stages of A. glycines and investigated consequences of these preferences for parasitoid fitness. We also determined to what extent A. glycines defensive behaviors mediate parasitoid preferences for these stages. Our research showed that B. communis readily attacks and develops on the various immature A. glycines stages as well as adults, alates and alatoid nymphs. Parasitism trials revealed identical parasitism rates of the various A. glycines stages, and few consequences for B. communis fitness. Parasitoid development time increased with aphid age, and wasps took longest to develop on alatoid nymphs and alates. An average of 54.01 +/- 0.08% of parasitized A. glycines alatoid nymphs transformed into winged adult aphids prior to mummification. No-choice assays showed a high proportion of successful attacks on small and intermediate A. glycines instars. We found that aphid adults, alates and alatoid nymphs were attacked to fairly large extent in these assays, while choice trials indicated avoidance as well as lower attack and oviposition of those stages. A variety of defensive behaviors were employed by the aphids, including body raising, kicking and body rotation. These defenses were employed most effectively by larger aphids, contributing to a lower parasitism rate of these stages in choice studies. We discuss implications for potential establishment, spread and biological control efficacy of B. communis after release in North America.

Last Modified: 11/22/2014
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