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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Biobased composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule watse: Select physical and mechanical properties

Authors
item HOLT, GREGORY
item Coffelt, Terry
item Chow, Poo - UNIV OF ILL-URBANA CHAMP
item Nakayama, Francis - USDA-ARS (RETIRED)

Submitted to: Trade Journal Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 20, 2007
Publication Date: May 15, 2009
Citation: Holt, G.A., Coffelt, T.A., Chow, P., Nakayama, F. 2009. Biobased composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule waste: Select physical and mechanical properties. International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. 36(1/2/3/4):104-114.

Interpretive Summary: Adding-value to agricultural waste/residues to produce a marketable product has seen resurgence in the research community over the past few years. Millions of tons of cotton gin byproducts (CGB) are produced annually across the U.S. cotton belt. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production (guayule bagasse) is expected to increase as the demand for latex products produced from guayule resin grow. This study reports on the use of CGB and guayule bagasse blends in the manufacture of composite boards and compares the mechanical properties of those boards to select industry standards for particleboards, medium density fiberboards, oriented strand boards, and hardboard siding. Three 7/16” thick boards were produced for five different ratios of CGB to guayule bagasse: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Board composition was homogenous with no orientation of fibers. For comparison, three 3-layered boards consisting of 25 % guayule bagasse (upper layer), 50 % CGB (middle layer), and 25 % guayule bagasse (bottom layer) were also made. The adhesive for the boards was comprised of 10 % of a commercial melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) and 1.5 % wax emulsion. Results showed the boards with CGB to guayule bagasse ratios of 25:75, 0:100, and 50:50 (3-layered) produced modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) bending values comparable with some grades of the commercial particleboard and hardboard. All experimental composition boards produced good average internal bond (IB) values except the 3-layered board. In the 24-hour water-soak test, both the 3-layered board and the 100 % guayule bagasse board produced the lowest average water absorption values (less than 20 %) and average thickness swelling values less than 10 %. All boards were tested for linear expansion, face hardness, and screw holding properties. Overall, the biobased CGB and guayule bagasse boards showed great potential. However, refinement is needed in processing, sizing, and selection of components of the waste stream that could further enhance the performance of these biomasses for composite board applications.

Technical Abstract: Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB) are being produced annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production (guayule bagasse) is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of these waste materials into value-added products can help the economics of the crops, and additionally, aid in alleviating waste management and environmental problems. Phase I of this study investigated important physical and mechanical properties of composition boards made from select CGB and guayule bagasse. The adhesive for the boards was comprised of 10 % of a commercial melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) and 1.5 % wax emulsion. Three 1.1 cm thick boards (average density of 832 kg/m3) were made from five different ratios of cotton gin waste to guayule bagasse wastes: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Board composition was homogenous with no orientation of fibers. For comparison, three 3-layered boards consisting of 25 % guayule bagasse (upper layer), 50 % CGB (middle layer), and 25 % guayule bagasse (bottom layer) were also made. Boards with CGB to guayule bagasse ratios of 25:75, 0:100, and 50:50 (3-layered) produced modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) bending values comparable with some grades of the commercial particleboard and hardboard. All experimental composition boards produced good average internal bond (IB) values except the 3-layered board. In the 24-hour water-soak test, both the 3-layered CGB and guayule bagasse board and the 100 % guayule bagasse board produced the lowest average water absorption values (less than 20 %) and average thickness swelling values less than 10 %. All boards were tested for linear expansion, face hardness, and screw holding properties. Overall, the biobased CGB and guayule bagasse boards showed great potential. However, refinement is needed in processing, sizing, and selection of components of the waste stream that could further enhance the performance of these biomasses for composite board applications. Phase 2 of this investigation will evaluate the termite resistance property of these boards.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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