Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: May 8, 2007
Publication Date: March 1, 2008
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2008. Avian influenza control strategies. In: Swayne, D.E., editor. Avian Influenza. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing. p. 287-297. Technical Abstract: There is no “one” control strategy to fit all types of avian influenza (AI) for every country and in all bird species. Each control strategy must be tailored to the AI virus and the local situation and needs. In most developed countries, HPAI has been handled by variations of stamping-out programs, but with the emergence of H5N1 HPAI in Asia 10 years ago, the strategies to control HPAI as well as LPAI have broadened, especially for developing countries, to incorporate a variety of options. There are three different goals or outcomes in the control of AI: 1) prevention, 2) management, and 3) eradication. These goals are accomplished based on comprehensive strategies developed using combinations of five specific components or features: 1) education, i.e. providing knowledge on how AI is transmitted and each individual’s role in prevention, management or eradication; 2) biosecurity, i.e. management practices and procedures to prevent virus introduction or, if present, from leaving a premise or country, zone, and compartment (CZC); 3) diagnostics and surveillance, i.e. ability to detect the virus or evidence of infections in bird populations or their environment, or methods to verify freedom from such infections; 4) elimination of infected poultry, i.e. removal of the infection source or susceptible sources to prevent continued environmental contamination and dissemination; and 5) decreasing host susceptibility; i.e. increasing host resistance to prevent infections or if infection occurs minimize the negative consequences. How effective the comprehensive strategy is at controlling AI is dependent upon how many of the five components are used and how thoroughly they are practiced in the field. The immediate goals for individual LPAI and HPAI control strategies may be different depending on the country, subtype of the virus, economic situation and risk to public health, but the long term goal should be elimination of AI.