DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO ANTIBIOTICS FOR CONTROLLING BACTERIAL RESPIRATORY PATHOGENS IN POULTRY
Location: Poultry Production and Products Safety Research
Title: Yeast improves resistance to environmental challenges
Submitted to: World Poultry
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2007
Publication Date: July 1, 2007
Citation: Huff, G.R., Solis Del Los Santos, F., Huff, W.E., Rath, N.C., Donoghue, A.M., Donoghue, D.J. 2007. Yeast improves resistance to environmental challenges. World Poultry. 23(7):12-14.
Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, was added at either 1 lb/ton or 2 lb/ton to a turkey starter diet. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation of 7 and 21 day old poults. Sections from the mid-point of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of each bird (9 poults/day/treatment) were fixed in 10% formalin and stained. Measurements of villus height (VH), villus surface area (VSA), lamina propria thickness (LP), crypt depth (CD) and density of neutral, sialomucin, and sulfomucin goblet cells were taken. Ileum VH, VSA, LP, CD and all goblet cell densities were enhanced with Alphamune™ and in a dose dependent manner for many of the parameters. Jejunum VH, CD and sialomucin and sulfomucin goblet cells were higher for the 2 lb/ton Alphamune™ groups compared to controls on day 7 and 21. Duodenum VH, VSA, and goblet cell density were higher for the 2 lb/ton Alphamune™ groups on day 7. Body weight (BW) was increased during the 1st week by both levels of supplementation. Birds from Trial 1 were exposed to cold stress (12-16oC) during weeks 1-3 and coarse spray inoculation of a E. coli at 1 week of age. Birds were bled and necropsied at 3 weeks of age. Challenged birds had decreased BW and feed conversion efficiency (FC) as compared to non-challenged controls. Both BW and FC of challenged poults were protected by both levels of Alphamune™. In a second experiment, birds from Trial 1 were given an airsac injection of 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age the challenged birds were subjected to transport stress. Both levels of Alphamune™ increased the BW of all birds relative to control feed. The E. coli challenge alone did not affect week 2 BW, however following transport stress BW was decreased in challenged birds and this decrease was prevented by both levels of Alphamune™. FC was decreased by stress and there was no improvement by diet. These studies suggest that Alphamune™ can enhance gut development and may be valuable for preventing the production losses due to stress.