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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTION STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE

Location: Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

Title: Land-based hatchery systems for finfish

Authors
item Colt, John - NOAA
item Rust, Michael - NOAA
item Summerfelt, Steve - FRESHWATER INSTITUTE
item Pfeiffer, Timothy
item Fivelstad, Sveinung - BEGEN COLLEGE, NORWAY

Submitted to: Marine Biotechnology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2006
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: The maturation, spawning, and early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need to control of the rearing environment. The resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flow-through with a pumped water supply, flow-through with pure oxygen, partial reuse system, partial reuse with heating, and a reuse system for the production of Atlantic salmon smolts was evaluated. Power (electricity and natural gas) and feed energy accounted for the majority of the required energy for the rearing option evaluated. The energy efficiency (energy output/energy input) of the six options ranges from 0.97% for flow-through with pumped supply to 4.53% for the flow-through with gravity supply. The rearing options with the three highest efficiencies were flow-through with gravity supply (4.53%), partial reuse (2.75%), and reuse (2.64%). The energy and water requirements for a major expansion of aquaculture in the United States are substantial. Improvements in the efficiency of power consumption and reduction in the energy density of feeds offers the greatest potential for reducing energy requirements of hatcheries.

Technical Abstract: The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flow-through with a pumped water supply, flow-through with pure oxygen, partial reuse system, partial reuse with heating, and a reuse system for the production of Atlantic salmon smolts. The computation of energy budgets depends strongly on energy density values used and the specific components considered, a subject with little agreement or standardization. Power (electricity and natural gas) and feed energy accounted for the majority of the required energy for the rearing option evaluated. The sum of the fixed capital and chemicals components accounted for less than 2-12% of the total energy budget for any rearing option. The energy efficiency (energy output/energy input) of the six options ranges from 0.97% for flow-through with pumped supply to 4.53% for the flow-through with gravity supply. The energy and water requirements for a major expansion of aquaculture in the United States are substantial. Improvements in the efficiency of power consumption and reduction in the energy density of feeds may offer the greatest potential for reducing energy requirements of hatcheries.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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