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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DETECTION, CONTROL AND AREA-WIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Natural Establishment of a Parasitoid Complex on Bactrocera latifons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

Authors
item Bokonon-Ganta, Aime - UH-MANOA-PEPS
item McQuate, Grant
item Messing, Russell - UH-MANOA-PEPS

Submitted to: Biological Control
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 30, 2007
Publication Date: June 10, 2007
Citation: Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., Mcquate, G.T., Messing, R.H. 2007. Natural establishment of parasitoid complex on Bactrocera latifrons, the most recent tephrid fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) species introduction in Hawaii. Biological Control. 42(2007):365-373

Interpretive Summary: The Solanaceous fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most recent of four tephritid fruit fly species accidentally introduced into Hawaii. In order to establish biological control of the three other tephritid fruit fly species that had previously been introduced into Hawaii, a number of different parasitoid species had been released in past years. However, since the introduction of B. latifrons into Hawaii, no parasitoid species have been released to suppress populations of B. latifrons, and there has been only limited assessment of the extent of biological control of this species provided by parasitoid species established against the first three introduced tephritid fruit fly species. The present study was conducted to document the parasitoid complex that has naturally established against B. latifrons in Hawaii and to assess whether there is a need for improving the biological control of this species. Because B. latifrons has not yet caused significant levels of infestation in cultivated crops in Hawaii, and because B. latifrons field populations are typically low, we needed to find a wild host from which we could readily recover larvae and pupae for identification of parasitizing species and parasitism rates. We chose to base our assessment of natural parasitism of B. latifrons on flies and parasitoids recovered from ripe turkeyberry (Solanum torvum Sw) fruits because turkeyberry fruits are available throughout most of the year at multiple sites spread over at least three of the Hawaiian islands and it can produce abundant, small fruits from which B. latifrons can readily be recovered. Based on fruit collections over three consecutive years at four sites, spread across three major islands in Hawaii, we identified 5 parasitoid species to have established against B. latifrons, with Fopius arisanus (Sonan), an egg-larval parasitoid, the predominant parasitoid recovered at three of the four sites. However, overall, the parasitism rate was low (< 9.0%) at each of the four sites examined. Low rates of parasitism suggest that there is a need to improve biological control of B. latifrons, to minimize chances of this species developing economic impact on crop production in Hawaii. We discuss the possibility of improving biological control of B. latifrons through either augmentative releases of F. arisanus or through introduction and release of specific and efficient new parasitoid species.

Technical Abstract: The Solanaceous fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most recent of four tephritid fruit fly species accidentally introduced into Hawaii. Although parasitoids have been released against other tephritid fruit fly species and have shown partial success in Hawaii, no parasitoids have been released to suppress populations of B. latifrons. The present study was conducted to document the parasitoid complex that has naturally established against B. latifrons in Hawaii and to assess whether there is a need for improving the biological control of this species. Based on ripe turkeyberry (Solanum torvum Sw) fruit collections over three consecutive years at four sites, on three major islands in Hawaii, over 96% of the tephritid fruit fly infestation of S. torvum at each site was B. latifrons (with lesser infestation by B. dorsalis). The overall percentage parasitism of B. latifrons ranged from a low of 0.8% (Hana, Maui) to a high of 8.8% (Kahalu'u, Oahu). Five parasitoid species were recovered from individually held B. latifrons puparia: Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), D. tryoni (Cameron), and Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri. F. arisanus was the predominant parasitoid at 3 of the 4 sites. Low rates of parasitism suggest that there is a need to improve biological control of B. latifrons, to minimize chances of this species causing economic impacts on crop production in Hawaii. We discuss the possibility of improving biological control of B. latifrons through either augmentative releases of F. arisanus or through introduction and release of specific and efficient new parasitoid species.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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