Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 20, 2003
Publication Date: May 1, 2004
Citation: Heird, W.C. 2004. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses. In: Behrman, R.E., Kleigman, R.M., Jenson, H.B., editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 17th edition. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Sanders. p. 177-190. Technical Abstract: Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing countries. Toxicity results from excessive intakes of the fat-soluble vitamins A and D, but toxicity from excessive intakes of the water-soluble vitamins is rare. The functions of vitamins, the daily reference intakes for infants and children and the vitamin-dependent states are summarized in this chapter.