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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: POSTHARVEST TREATMENT OF TROPICAL COMMODITIES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY, QUALITY MAINTENANCE, AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

Authors
item Armstrong, John
item Follett, Peter

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 13, 2007
Publication Date: August 1, 2007
Citation: Armstrong, J.W., Follett, P.A. 2007. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. Volume 100, No. 4, pp 1091-1097.

Interpretive Summary: Hot water immersion at 49ºC for 20 min was tested as a quarantine against fruit flies for litchi and longan. Litchi served as the model for longan because litchi fruit are generally larger and slower to heat. The 49ºC hot-water immersion of ‘Brewster’, ‘Groff’, ‘Kaimana’, and ‘Kwai Mi’ cultivars of litchi provided probit 9 (99.9968% mortality with >95% confidence) quarantine security against eggs and first instars. Data from the experiments were used to obtain approval of a hot water immersion quarantine treatment against fruit flies for litchi and longan exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland.

Technical Abstract: Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), eggs or larvae in Hawaiian litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonnerat. The 49ºC hot-water immersion of ‘Brewster’, ‘Groff’, ‘Kaimana’, and ‘Kwai Mi’ cultivars of litchi provided probit 9 (99.9968% mortality with >95% confidence) quarantine security against eggs and first instars. There were no survivors from 15,000 each feeding and non-feeding Mediterranean fruit fly or oriental fruit fly third instars immersed in a computer-controlled water bath that simulated the litchi seed-surface temperature profile during the 49ºC hot-water immersion treatment. Litchi served as the model for longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour., a closely related fruit that is smaller in size and also has commercial potential for Hawaii. Modified fruit infestation and holding techniques used to obtain adequate estimated treated populations from poor host fruits, such as litchi and longan, are described. Data from these experiments were used to obtain approval of a hot water immersion quarantine treatment against fruit flies for litchi and longan exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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