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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season

Authors
item Lee, Stephen
item Ralphs, Michael
item Panter, Kip
item Cook, Daniel
item Gardner, Dale

Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 21, 2006
Publication Date: December 5, 2006
Citation: Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33:75-84

Interpretive Summary: Lupinus leucophyllus contains toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts throughout the growing season of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues throughout the growing season, although their levels varied in the different tissues. Concentrations of the total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids were different between years and in different plant parts. Anagyrine levels were highest in the floral parts of the plant, lupanine accumulated to the greatest level in the vegetative part of the plant, and 5,6-dehydrolupanine accumulated to the highest level in the stem. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine accumulated to its highest level in the developing seed. The developing seed stage is thus the stage posing the greatest danger to grazing livestock.

Technical Abstract: Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenological development of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues throughout the growing season, although their levels varied in the different tissues. Concentrations of the total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids varied on an annual basis and in their distribution in the different tissues. Anagyrine levels were highest in the floral tissue, lupanine and unknown F accumulated to the greatest level in the vegetative tissue, and 5,6-dehydrolupanine accumulated to the highest level in the stem. These alkaloids appear to be in a metabolically active state with the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine accumulating to its highest level in the developing seed. The latter is thus the phenological stage posing the greatest danger to grazing livestock.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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