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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: VECTOR COMPETENCE AND PROTECTION OF U.S. LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE FROM ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES Title: Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus to Cattle by the Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Authors
item Perez DE Leon, Adalberto - FORMER ARS POST DOC
item Tabachnick, Walter - FORMER ARS SCIENTIST

Submitted to: Journal of Medical Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 8, 2005
Publication Date: March 1, 2006
Citation: Perez De Leon, A.A., Tabachnick, W.J. 2006. Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus to Cattle by the Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 43(2):323-329.

Interpretive Summary: Technical Laboratory-reared Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) through intrathoracic inoculation. After 10-d incubation at 25_C, these insects were allowed to blood feed on four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation with 108 tissue culture infective dose50 VSNJV. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. The results demonstrate the ability of C. sonorensis to transmit VSNJV to livestock. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected C. sonorensis allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with VSNJV. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This is probably because of different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. A significant difference was found in the serum acute-phase protein _-1-acid glycoprotein in animals that received VSNJV through C. sonorensis transmission. These animals had previously been exposed to insect attack in the field compared with intralingually inoculated animals and C. sonorensis-infected animals that had been protected from insect attack. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

Technical Abstract: Interpretive Biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis were shown to transmit vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (VSNJV) to four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected midges allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with virus. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This was thought to be due to the different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by the midge may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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