AFLATOXIN CONTROL THROUGH TARGETING MECHANISMS GOVERNING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN CORN AND COTTONSEED
Location: Food and Feed Safety Research
Title: Genomics of Mycotoxigenic Fungi
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 15, 2006
Publication Date: November 30, 2006
Citation: Bhatnagar, D., Proctor, R., Payne, G.A., Wilkinson, J.R., Yu, J., Cleveland, T.E., Nierman, W.C. 2006. Genomics of Mycotoxigenic Fungi, pp. 157-177. In: Barug, D., Bhatnagar, D., van Egmond, H.P., van der Kamp, J.W., van Osenbruggen, W.A. Visconti, A., (eds). The Mycotoxin Factbook. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers. 400 p.
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that are harmful to the health of humans and/or animals. Aflatoxin, trichothecenes (T-2 toxin and DON toxin) and fumonisins are the major mycotoxins that contaminate crop plants and, as a result, are of great importance to agricultural economics and in food and feed safety. Aflatoxins are produced mainly by the two Aspergillus species in section Flavi, A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Trichothecenes and fumonisin are produced by Fusarium species. The genetics and biology of aflatoxin, trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis have been investigated in significant detail, and many of the genes and/or enzymes involved in the formation of these toxins have been identified. Genomic efforts, such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST), cosmid clone sequencing, chromosome sequencing and large-scale whole genome sequencing, on toxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergillus and Fusarium species, have been made in recent years. The technological breakthroughs in genomics research have significantly advanced our understanding of the biology and genetics of these filamentous fungi for the control of mycotoxin contamination in food and feed.