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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BENEFITS AND RISKS OF USING WASTE FOUNDRY SAND FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL APPLICATIONS Title: Use of Spinach, Radish, and Perennial Ryegrass to Assess the Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

Authors
item Dungan, Robert
item Dees, Nikki

Submitted to: Journal Of Water Air And Soil Pollution
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2007
Publication Date: July 1, 2007
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/11203
Citation: Dungan, R.S., Dees, N.H. 2007. Use of Spinach, Radish, and Perennial Ryegrass to Assess the Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands. Journal Of Water Air And Soil Pollution. 183:213-223.

Interpretive Summary: Plant uptake is a major pathway by which potentially toxic metals can enter the food chain. In this laboratory study we grew spinach, radish, and perennial ryegrass in sand blends containing 50% waste foundry sand (WFS) to assess the availability of the following metals: Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. The WFSs utilized in this study were from aluminum, iron, and steel foundries, which were found to contain metal levels similar to that of native soils. Although there were differences in the amount of metal accumulated by the various plant species, excessive amounts of heavy metals were not taken up, regardless of WFS treatment. In particular, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and V were not detected in the majority of plant tissues, and when detected they were at the lowest concentrations of any of the elements measured. In spinach and radish, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were found to be within or close to the nutrient range for agronomic crops. In ryegrass cuttings harvested at 27, 57, and 87 days, Cu and Zn were within nutrient ranges, but plants were Fe deficient and contained elevated levels of B and Mn. Data from this study will be useful to state regulatory agencies interested in developing beneficial use regulations for WFSs.

Technical Abstract: Plant uptake is a major pathway by which potentially toxic metals can enter the food chain. In this laboratory study we grew spinach, radish, and perennial ryegrass in sand blends containing 50% waste foundry sand (WFS) to assess the availability of Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. The WFSs utilized in this study were from aluminum, iron, and steel foundries. Although there were differences in the amount of metal accumulated by the various plant species, excessive amounts of heavy metals were not taken up, regardless of WFS treatment. In particular, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and V were not detected in the majority of plant tissues, and when detected they were at the lowest concentrations of any of the elements measured. In spinach and radish, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were found to be within or close to the sufficiency range for agronomic crops. In ryegrass cuttings at 27, 57, and 87 days, Cu and Zn were within sufficiency ranges, but plants were Fe deficient and contained elevated levels of B and Mn. Data from this study will be useful to state regulatory agencies interested in developing beneficial use regulations for WFSs.

Last Modified: 4/20/2014
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