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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCE WHEAT QUALITY AND UTILIZATION IN THE WESTERN U.S.

Location: Wheat Genetics, Quality Physiology and Disease Research

Title: Influence of Flour Chlorination and Ingredient Formulation on the Quality Attributes of Pancakes

Authors
item Finnie, Sean
item Bettge, Arthur
item Morris, Craig

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 9, 2006
Publication Date: December 1, 2006
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/20514
Citation: Finnie, S.M., Bettge, A.D., Morris, C.F. 2006. Influence of flour chlorination and ingredient formulation on the quality attributes of pancakes. Cereal Chemistry 83(6):684-691.

Interpretive Summary: Soft wheat flour used in North America is commonly chlorinated for the production of cakes and pancakes. The chlorine gas causes chemical modifications to flour components that enhance processing and end-use functionality of the wheat in the intended food products. We discovered that flour chlorination had a significant influence on pancake quality compared to unchlorinated flour, with chlorinated flour producing a less viscous batter, and a larger and thicker pancake that was softer, more cohesive and resilient. The evaluation of a wide range of formula ingredient concentrations in unchlorinated flour indicated that none could wholly substitute for flour chlorination, although some progress was made in identifying ingredients that influence various pancake end-use parameters. Additionally, a lab-scale pancake method was developed.

Technical Abstract: Soft wheat flour is commonly chlorinated in North America for the production of cakes and pancakes. The oxidative properties of chlorine gas cause chemical modifications to flour components that enhance processing and end-use functionality of the intended food products. The objectives of this study were first, to compare how untreated and chlorine-treated commercial soft wheat flour perform in a standard pancake formulation and second, to compare how the individual ingredients in a standard pancake formulation influence quality attributes of pancakes made with untreated as well as chlorine-treated commercial soft wheat flour. Two portions of the same soft wheat flour, one chlorinated and the other unchlorinated, were used to study the effects of flour chlorination on batter viscosity, geometry and texture quality attributes of pancakes. Commercial pancake formula ingredients were evaluated at different concentrations for their individual influence on quality attributes of pancakes. Differences in means (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the influence of the sources of pancake quality variation. The results indicate that flour chlorination had a significant influence on pancake batter viscosity, geometry and texture, with chlorinated flour producing a less viscous batter, a larger and thicker pancake that was softer, more cohesive and resilient. The evaluation of a wide range of formula ingredient concentrations indicated that none could wholly substitute for chlorination. Individual ingredients did dramatically influence pancake batter viscosity, geometry and texture, especially soy flour, dextrose and leavening agents. However, sucrose and shortening had non-significant influences on the end-use quality of both chlorinated and unchlorinated pancakes.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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