|Orthoefer, Frank - RICELAND FOODS, INC.|
Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2006
Publication Date: February 12, 2007
Citation: Orthoefer, F.T., List, G.R. 2007. Dynamics of frying. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 253-275. Technical Abstract: Frying, one of the most important methods of food preparation, is widely used by both the food industry and consumers. Its popularity continues to grow, even with the media now stressing reduced dietary oil consumption. Fats and oils have unique properties that add to the flavor and mouthfeel most desirable in overall food palatability. Deep-fat frying is a popular restaurant preparation technique because it is fast and convenient. Properly fried foods have a dry, nongreasy appearance and taste. When well prepared, the food surface is crisp outside and moist or tender inside. Flavor, color, and odor are all important attributes. Frying is deceptively simple, yet it is one of the least understood methods of food preparation. It continues to be more of an art than a science. Types of frying include pan/griddle, deep-fat, and industrial/continuous frying. In all cases, the oil provides an effective medium for energy transfer from the heat source to the food. Proper frying practice as well as the most appropriate frying oil or shortening is generally determined by experience. Production of desirable characteristics in fried food depends on the heat capacity of the frying medium, thermal conductivity of the food, proper temperature differentials between the oil and food, dehydration on the surface of the food, and oil absorption and interaction with food components to develop the desired texture and flavor. In this chapter, heat transfer and mass transfer are discussed, along with mass changes during frying.