|Huber, Jurg - INST. BIO. PFL., GERMANY|
Submitted to: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 23, 2007
Publication Date: October 1, 2007
Citation: Lacey, L.A., Arthurs, S.P., Knight, A.L., Huber, J. 2007. Microbial control of lepidopteran pests of apple orchards. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, 2nd ed. L.A. Lacey & H.K. Kaya, eds. pp. 527-546. Springer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Technical Abstract: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple and pear. Traditional control methods have been based predominantly on broad spectrum insecticides. Concerns over the safety, environmental impact, and sustainability of synthetic pesticides have stimulated development and use of softer control methods within the integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. Natural enemies (entomopathogens, predators and parasitoids) and their use as biological control agents play key roles in IPM. In this review we scientists at the USDA ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, Washington, in collaboration with the Institute fur Biologischen Pflanzenschutz, Darmstadt, Germany summarize the literature on the microbial control of codling moth and discuss its integration with other control options in orchard IPM. A variety of entomopathogens have been reported from codling moth, but only the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been developed as microbial control agents. CpGV is highly virulent and selective for neonate codling moth larvae, but may require frequent reapplication due to solar inactivation, especially when population densities are high. The EPNs Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae have good potential for control of overwintering cocooned larvae when temperatures are above 10 and 15°C, respectively and adequate moisture is maintained in the orchard for several hours after EPN application. Protocols for the evaluation of CpGV and EPNs are provided for codling moth control. This summary of information will assist other researchers and pest control developers in their efforts to further improve management of codling moth and other pests of apple and related tree fruit crops.