|Skovmand, Ole - INTELL. INSECT CTRL, FR|
|Kerwin, James - SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, CA|
Submitted to: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 23, 2007
Publication Date: October 1, 2007
Citation: Skovmand, O., Kerwin, J., Lacey, L.A. 2007. Microbial control of mosquitoes and black flies. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, 2nd ed. L.A.Lacey & H.K. Kaya, eds. pp. 735-750. Springer, Dordrecht. Technical Abstract: The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the past 20 years is presented regarding the toxins of Bti and B. sphaericus, their modes of action, efficacy and factors that affect larvicidal activity, development of resistance, safety and their roles in integrated mosquito control. The efficacy of Bti formulations has been demonstrated in a variety of habits against a multitude of species of mosquitoes. B. sphaericus formulations have been utilized predominantly in organically enriched habitats against Culex species. Both bacteria are safe for the majority of nontarget organisms and will be compatible with most predators of mosquitoes. In addition to the bacteria, information on the fungus, Lagenidium giganteum and mermithid nematodes is also provided. Information is also provided on the activity and evaluation of Bti for black fly control. Field protocols for the evaluation of these microbial control agents are presented in detail.