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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONVERTING ALASKA FISH BY-PRODUCTS INTO VALUE ADDED INGREDIENTS AND PRODUCTS Title: Fish Meals, Fish Components, and Fish Protein Hydrolysates As Potential Ingredients in Pet Foods.

Authors
item Folador, J.F. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
item Karr-Lilienthal, L.K. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
item Parsons, C.M. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
item Bauer, L.L. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
item Utterback, P.L. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
item Schasteen, C.S. - NOVUS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
item BECHTEL, PETER
item Fahey, G.C. - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2006
Publication Date: October 20, 2006
Citation: Folador, J., Karr-Lilienthal, L., Parsons, C., Bauer, L., Utterback, P., Schasteen, C., Bechtel, P.J., Fahey, G. 2006. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods. Journal of Animal Science 84(10):2752-2765.

Interpretive Summary: The chemical composition and protein quality of thirteen fish substrates (pollock by-products, fish protein hydrolysates, and fish meals) was conducted. In addition, the palatability of two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate and salmon meal with crushed bones, as components of dog diets was evaluated. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of crude protein, crude fat, total amino acids and gross energy; however protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable. Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by the Immobilized Digestive Enzyme Assay and the cecectomized rooster assay. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared salmon meal with crushed bone and salmon hydrolysate to a whole egg meal showed the former had high protein quality, whereas the latter had poor protein quality. However, both of these fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential amino acid index values of 1.0 and 0.9. Salmon protein hydrolysate was especially palatable to dogs. These data suggest that chemical composition and nutritional quality of fish substrates differ greatly and are affected by the specific part of the fish and by the processing conditions used to prepare fish meals and fish protein hydrolysates.

Technical Abstract: An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of thirteen fish substrates (pollock by-products, fish protein hydrolysates, and fish meals) was conducted, as was an experiment to determine palatability of two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate and salmon meal with crushed bones, as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of crude protein, crude fat, total amino acids and gross energy; however protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable. Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using Immobilized Digestive Enzyme Assay (IDEA) values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by IDEA and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared salmon meal with crushed bone and salmon hydrolysate to a whole egg meal control and showed the former had high protein quality (PER=3.5) whereas the latter had poor protein quality (PER =1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential amino acid index of 1.0 and 0.9 for salmon meal with crushed bone and salmon hydrolysate, respectively. Salmon protein hydrolysate was especially palatable to dogs. These data suggest that chemical composition and nutritional quality of fish substrates differ greatly and are affected by the specific part of the fish and by the processing conditions used to prepare fish meals and fish protein hydrolysates.

Last Modified: 8/19/2014
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