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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PEST BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Location: North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory

Title: Abundance of Coccinellids (Coleoptera) in Field-Crop and Grass Habitats in Eastern South Dakota

Authors
item Hesler, Louis
item Ellsbury, Michael
item Kieckhefer, Robert

Submitted to: Great Lakes Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 6, 2006
Publication Date: May 25, 2006
Citation: Hesler, L.S., Ellsbury, M.M., Kieckhefer, R.W. 2005. Abundance of coccinellids (Coleoptera) in field-crop and grass habitats in eastern South Dakota. Great Lakes Entomol. 38:83-96.

Interpretive Summary: A rich fauna of lady beetles occurs in eastern South Dakota, but the abundance of some species declined after the exotic sevenspotted lady beetle established in the mid-1980s. In this study, lady beetles were sampled within field-crop and grass-plot habitats in eastern South Dakota from 1990 to 1995 to survey for various species and to determine any effects of habitat management on abundance. Field crops (maize, wheat-alfalfa intercrop, and alfalfa) were subjected to high, intermediate, or low crop-management intensity (CMI), and grass habitats were managed for stands of warm season, cool season, or mixed species. A total of 1,306 adult and 155 immature lady beetles were sampled. Collectively, four native species (the convergent lady beetle, the thirteenspotted lady beetle, parenthesis lady beetle, and pink-and-black lady beetle) and the sevenspotted lady beetle comprised over 96 percent of lady beetles sampled. Of declining species, four transverse lady beetles were sampled from alfalfa, but the two-spotted and nine-spotted lady beetles were not sampled. Abundance of lady beetles was seldom affected by CMI. They were more abundant in wheat-alfalfa in 1995 under high than low CMI, whereas their abundance in maize and alfalfa did not differ with CMI. A prey species, the potato leafhopper, was more abundant in alfalfa in 1995 under high and intermediate CMI than under low CMI, but lady beetle abundance was not correlated with that of potato leafhopper in 1995 and showed inconsistent association with it during the study. In grass, adult lady beetles, adult thirteenspotted lady beetles, and aphids were more abundant in warm-season grasses than in cool-season or mixed grass stands in one of three years. Our results provide further evidence that the sevenspotted lady beetle has become relatively abundant in eastern South Dakota, whereas the two-spotted, nine-spotted and transverse lady beetles have become rare or absent.

Technical Abstract: A rich fauna of coccinellids occurs in eastern South Dakota, but the abundance of some species has declined in association with the establishment of an exotic lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, in the mid-1980s. In this study, coccinellids were sampled within field-crop and grass-plot habitats in eastern South Dakota from 1990 to 1995 to survey for various coccinellid species and to determine any effects of habitat management on abundance. Field crops (maize, wheat-alfalfa intercrop, and alfalfa) were subjected to high, intermediate, or low crop-management intensity (CMI), and grass habitats were managed for stands of warm season, cool season, or mixed species. A total of 1,306 adult and 155 larval coccinellids were sampled. Collectively, four native species [Coleomegilla maculata, Hippodamia convergens, H. parenthesis, and H. tredecimpunctata tibialis] and C. septempunctata comprised over 96 percent of all coccinellids sampled. Of declining species, four Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni were sampled from alfalfa, but C. novemnotata and Adalia bipunctata were not sampled during the study. Coccinellid abundance was seldom affected by CMI. Coccinellids were more abundant in wheat-alfalfa in 1995 under high than low CMI. Coccinellid abundance in maize and alfalfa did not differ with CMI. A prey species, Empoasca fabae, was more abundant in alfalfa in 1995 under high and intermediate CMI than under low CMI, but coccinellid abundance was not correlated with that of E. fabae in 1995 and showed inconsistent association with E. fabae during the study. In grass, adult coccinellids, adult H. tredecimpunctata tibialis, and aphids were more abundant in warm-season grasses than in cool-season or mixed grass stands in one of three years. Our results provide further evidence that C. septempunctata has become relatively abundant in eastern South Dakota, whereas C. transversoguttata richardsoni, C. novemnotata, and A. bipunctata have become rare or absent.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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