|Ishizaki, Hiroshi - NILGS, NISHINASUNO, JAPAN|
|Thurston Enriquez, Jeanette|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 22, 2006
Publication Date: April 1, 2007
Citation: Dowd, S.E., Ishizaki, H., Thurston Enriquez, J.A. 2007. Microarrays: Design and use for agricultural and environmental applications. In: Crawford, R.L., Garland, J.L., Lipson, D.A., Mills, A.L., Stetzenbach, L.D., editors. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. 3rd Edition. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 663-675. Interpretive Summary: This review deals with the use of microarray technology in environmental samples. Of particular focus are methods that can be applied to soil samples. Microarray technology is an important new and powerful method for evaluation of microbial diversity, gene expression, and population genetics. The application of microarray technology to the study of agricultural soils is beginning to show promise. This review of current research and methodologies provides an introduction into the technology that will benefit scientists seeking to introduce these methods to their research programs. This review also provides a broad overview of the technology itself allowing those unfamiliar with the techniques to gain an appreciation for them.
Technical Abstract: Environmental microorganisms are diverse and typically exist in dynamic community structures that are continually changing based upon many environmental factors including nutrient levels, temperature, water content, pH, and oxygen status. The emerging microarray technology has already been used in the field of environmental microbiology to estimate microbial diversity, uncover metabolic activity of specific communities, understand interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and identify specific microorganisms. The primary use of microarrays is as a method for comparative quantification of gene expression levels between a control sample and a treatment sample. This review article provides an introduction into the technology focused on the field of environmental microbiology.