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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Risk Factors Associated with Herd-Level Bluetongue Virus Exposure of Cattle in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota

Authors
item Green, A. - APHIS
item Dargatz, D. - APHIS
item Schmidtmann, Edward
item Herrero, Marco - UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA
item Seitzinger, A. - APHIS
item Ostlund, E. - APHIS
item Wagner, B. - APHIS
item Moser, K. - APHIS
item Wineland, N. - APHIS
item Walton, Tom - APHIS

Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 1, 2005
Publication Date: May 1, 2005
Citation: Green, A.L., Dargatz, D.A., Schmidtmann, E.T., Herrero, M.V., Seitzinger, A.H., Ostlund, E.N., Wagner, B.A., Moser, K.M., Wineland, N.E., Walton, T.E. 2005. Risk factors associated with herd-level bluetongue virus exposure of cattle in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 66: 853-860.

Interpretive Summary: The distribution of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the major vector (carrier) of bluetongue viruses, was determined across the multi-state region of Nebraska, South, and North Dakota. This study was part of a larger study of bluetongue disease in cattle. Bluetongue disease is important because it restricts the export of U.S. cattle to other countries, particularly Canada. Understanding the distribution of the insect C. sonorenis is necessary to establishing and declaring an area to be free of bluetongue disease. We used blacklight suction traps set near stock ponds and small streams (the larval habitat for C. sonorensis) on 74 ranches and farms during July, August, and September 2001 to detect the presence or absence of biting midges. The results show that C. sonorensis was widespread across Nebraska, where it was present on 15 of 18 operations. In South and North Dakota, the species was consistently present west of the Missouri River (present on 13 of 27 and 4 of 27 operations, respectively), but less abundant or absent east of the Missouri River. This pattern matches in general areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation and soils are non-glaciated (west of Missouri River) or precipitation exceeds evaporation and the soils are glaciated (east of Missouri River). In defining the distribution of C. sonorensis across a multi-state region, this study 1) improves understanding of bluetongue disease and 2) promotes on a scientific basis export markets for U.S. cattle.

Technical Abstract: The distribution of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the major vector (carrier) of bluetongue viruses, was determined across the multi-state region of Nebraska, South, and North Dakota. This study was part of a larger study of bluetongue disease in cattle. Bluetongue disease is important because it restricts the export of U.S. cattle to other countries, particularly Canada. Understanding the distribution of the insect C. sonorenis is necessary to establishing and declaring an area to be free of bluetongue disease. We used blacklight suction traps set near stock ponds and small streams (the larval habitat for C. sonorensis) on 74 ranches and farms during July, August, and September 2001 to detect the presence or absence of biting midges. The results show that C. sonorensis was widespread across Nebraska, where it was present on 15 of 18 operations. In South and North Dakota, the species was consistently present west of the Missouri River (present on 13 of 27 and 4 of 27 operations, respectively), but less abundant or absent east of the Missouri River. This pattern matches in general areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation and soils are non-glaciated (west of Missouri River) or precipitation exceeds evaporation and the soils are glaciated (east of Missouri River). In defining the distribution of C. sonorensis across a multi-state region, this study 1) improves understanding of bluetongue disease and 2) promotes on a scientific basis export markets for U.S. cattle.

Last Modified: 11/22/2014
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