DEVELOPMENT & MAINTENANCE OF FLAVOR & SHELF-LIFE IN PEANUTS THROUGH IMPROVED HANDLING, PROCESSING AND USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES
Location: Market Quality and Handling Research
Title: Compositional and Sensory Comparison Between Normal- and High-Oleic Peanuts
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 30, 2005
Publication Date: February 3, 2006
Citation: Isleib, T.G., Pattee, H.E., Sanders, T.H., Hendrix, K., Dean, L.L. 2006. Comparisons between normal-and high- oleic peanuts with respect to seed composition factors and sensory attributes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54(9):1759-1763.
Interpretive Summary: The high oleic acid trait in the oil of peanuts has resulted in longer shelf life of products made using high oleic peanuts. Flavor is an important factor in peanut consumption and studies were conducted to determine if the high oleic trait resulted in meaningful flavor variation in non-storage related situations. Flavor of high oleic peanuts was found to not vary significantly from normal oleic acid peanuts and the benefit of high oleic peanuts is limited to longer shelf life of peanuts and peanut products.
The high oleic acid trait increases the oxidative stability of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and their products. The explicit effect of the trait on sensory quality, particularly on off-flavors associated with oil rancidity, has not been documented. In order to assess the effect of the trait on off-flavors, data from two independent databases, one collected using a sensory panel in the Dep. of Food Science at N.C. State Univ. and the other using peanut samples from the multi-state Uniform Peanut Performance Test evaluated by a panel in the USDA-ARS Market Quality and Handling Research Unit (MQHRU) at Raleigh, NC, were analyzed to compare sensory quality and composition in normal- versus high-oleic peanut genotypes. In the NCSU data, there were small differences between near-isogenic lines for intensities of the roasted peanut, astringent, over-roast, and nutty attributes with the high-oleic lines exhibiting slightly greater intensities of those attributes. There were no differences for off-flavors such as painty, stale, moldy, or petroleum. In the MQHRU data, there were differences in chemical composition associated with the high-oleic trait, including differences in oil content, tocopherols, and carbohydrates in addition to the expected differences in fatty acid contents. There were small decreases in the intensities of the sensory attributes cardboard and painty associated with the high-oleic trait in the MQHRU data when comparing all high-oleic lines with all normal-oleic lines. In comparing the near-isogenic pair NC 7 and N00090ol, there were differences in oil and glucose content, but not in sensory attributes. The high-oleic trait does not appear to have a major impact on sensory quality on average, although there were individual instances in which the trait was associated with shifts in sensory attribute intensities that may be perceptible to consumers.