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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Blueberries(vaccinium Spp),plums (Prunus Spp),prunes(prunus Spp),strawberries(fragaria X Ananassa),cherries(malpighia Punicifolia),cranberries(vaccinium Macrocarpon)& Apples(malus Sylvestris)

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Smith, Gordon

Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 22, 2005
Publication Date: February 1, 2007
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (vaccinium spp), plums (prunus spp), prunes(prunus spp), strawberries (fragaria x ananassa), cherries(malpighia punicifolia), cranberries(vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (malus sylvestris). Food Chemistry. 100:1182-1187.

Interpretive Summary: The in vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries, cranberries and apples was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for blueberries 7%, plums 6%, prunes 5%, strawberries 5%, cherries 5%, cranberries 4% and apples 1%. Bile acid binding for blueberries was significantly higher and for apples significantly lower than plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries. Relative bile acid binding on dry matter basis was blueberries > plums = prunes = strawberries = cherries = cranberries > apples indicating their relative healthful potential. Inclusion of blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries our daily diets as health-promoting fruits should be encouraged.

Technical Abstract: The in vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (vaccinium spp.), plums (prunus spp), prunes (prunus spp), strawberries (fragaria x ananassa), cherries (malpighia punicifolia) cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples ((Malus sylvestris) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted testing various fresh raw vegetables on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter (DM), total dietary fiber (TDF) and total polysaccharides (PCH) basis was for blueberries 7, 47 and 25%; plums 6, 53 and 50%; prunes 5, 50 and 14%; strawberries 5, 23 and 15%; cherry 5, 37 and 5%; cranberries 4, 12 and 7%; and apple 1, 7 and 5%, respectively. Bile acid binding on DM basis for blueberries was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all the fruits tested. The bile acid binding for plums was similar to that for prunes and strawberries and significantly higher than cherries, cranberries and apples. Binding values for cherries and cranberries were significantly higher than those for apples. These results point to the relative health promoting potential of blueberries > plums = prunes = strawberries = cherries = cranberries > apples as indicated by their bile acid binding on DM basis. The variability in bile acid binding between the fruits tested maybe related their phytonutrients (antioxidants, polyphenols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, catechins), structure, hydrophobicity of undigested fractions, anionic or cationic nature of the metabolites produced during digestion or their interaction with active binding sites. Inclusion of blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries in our daily diet as health promoting fruits should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of fruits observed herein to their healthful potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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