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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: POSTHARVEST TREATMENT OF TROPICAL COMMODITIES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY, QUALITY MAINTENANCE, AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT Title: Assessing Nezara Viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Damage in Macadamia Nuts by Using a Biological Stain

Authors
item Golden, Mary - UNIV. HAWAII
item Follett, Peter
item Wright, Mark - UNIV. HAWAII

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 9, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2006
Citation: Golden, M., Follett, P.A., Wright, M. 2006. Assessing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding damage in macadamia nuts by using a biological stain. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(3): 822-827.

Interpretive Summary: Nezara viridula is a major pest of macadamia nut. Damage caused by Nezara viridula to macadamia nuts is normally determined after nuts are harvested and processed, which may be many months after damage occurred in the field. We developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. Using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. The staining method was equally effective for immature and mature nuts, and therefore, N. viridula feeding activity can be monitored throughout the season to evaluate pest management tactics and forecast outbreak populations.

Technical Abstract: Damage caused by Nezara viridula to macadamia nuts is normally determined after nuts are harvested and processed, which may be many months after damage occurred in the field. We developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. Using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. Husk probing was highly correlated (0.80 - 0.90) with feeding and damage to the kernel. Failure rate to detect kernel damage from stained husk probes was generally < 6%. The staining method was equally effective for immature and mature nuts, and therefore, N. viridula feeding activity can be monitored throughout the season to evaluate pest management tactics and forecast outbreak populations.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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