Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 14, 2005
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: The systems approach incorporating various control techiques in the field was investigated as an economical procedure for reducing high olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), populations in olive, Olea europaea, orchards along the coastal areas of California and as a means of control for low populations of the pest in commercial orchards in the central interior valley. The basic biology of olive fruit fly was investigated in laboratory incubator tests. Adults survived for the following number of days after exposure to different temperatures and humidities with and without food: 5ºC, 85% RH, 30-40 d (food), 10-17 d (no food); 15ºC, 65% RH, 44-76 d (food), 4-5 d (no food); and 25ºC, 25% RH, 17-32 d (food), 2-4 d (no food); 35ºC, 25% RH, 2-4 d (food), 1 d (no food). At 21ºC, 60% RH, the duration of each life stage in olive fruit was as follows: Eggs 5-6 d, 1st instar 7-8 d, 2nd instar 9-11 d, and 3rd instar 12-15 d. A yellow panel trap was found to be a highly effective method to monitor olive fruit fly adults. The mean ± SEM total number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon ® AM traps (17.2 ± 11.9 in summer to 232.5 ± 44.8 in spring) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in ChamP traps (5.5 ± 2.1 in summer to 170.5 ± 25.5 in spring) for the sum of all collection dates (every 7-12 d from March through June, and every 14 d from July through August). Orchard sanitation was shown to be important in reducing overwintering populations. Non-harvested fruit that remained in trees in a coastal orchard since the previous year supported olive fruit fly from March through May (0.4-6.4 pupae per 10 g olive fruit). A parasitoid, Psytallia cf. concolor, imported from MOSCAMED, Guatemala and originally collected from Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on coffee in Kenya, caused 100% mortality of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae in field cage tests and 10% parasitism of larvae in small field releases. P. cf. concolor and olive fruit fly adults survived in greenhouse tests for the following number of days after exposure to different temperatures and humidities with and without food and water: 24ºC, 65% RH, parasitoid 17-66 d (food) and 4-15 d (no food), olive fruit fly 53-202 d (food) and 5-12 d (no food); and 35ºC, 30% RH, parasitoid 3-7 d (food) and 1 d (no food), olive fruit fly 1-11 d (food) and 2-3 d (no food).