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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Use of Attractants to Control Persimmon and Lychee Pests

Authors
item McQuate, Grant
item Follett, Peter

Submitted to: Proceedings of the International Tropical Fruit Conference
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: September 23, 2004
Publication Date: October 1, 2004
Citation: Mcquate, G.T., Follett, P.A. 2004. Use of attractants to control persimmon and lychee pests. Proceedings of the International Tropical Fruit Conference.

Interpretive Summary: Oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp. are established pests of lychee fruits and Mediterranean fruit fly is an established pest of persimmon fruits in Hawaii. In lychee, infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp. can produce similar types of damage, making it difficult to visually distinguish which species caused the damage. We tested the efficacy of new attractant/toxicant combinations to reduce this damage through concurrent suppression of both oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp. populations in lychee orchards. Neither the spinosad-based product for oriental fruit fly suppression nor the pheromone-based product for Cryptophlebia spp. suppression reduced infestation rate or infestation-related fruit damage. Further research is needed to determine threshold population levels in lychee where bait spraying for oriental fruit fly suppression would be of economic value. In addition, improved attract and kill products and/or larger treatment areas may be needed to provide satisfactory levels of fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp. suppression. In persimmon, a mass trapping program using a three-component synthetic protein bait has recently been used in Hawaii which has shown promise in suppressing Mediterranean fruit fly populations in persimmon orchards except under conditions where an adjacent favored alternate host, coffee, bore mature fruits before and during the persimmon season. To improve Mediterranean fruit fly population suppression in this situation, we sprayed coffee plants with a spinosad-based bait spray, starting before persimmon fruits became susceptible to sting damage. The bait spray strongly suppressed the C. capitata population level and led to reduced infestation levels in both coffee cherries and persimmon fruits. These results suggest that mass trapping, combined with spinosad-based bait sprays, can be used as part of an improved integrated pest management system for C. capitata and have encouraged consideration of developing other tree fruit crops such as peach and loquat, which have received little attention because of heavy Mediterranean fruit fly infestation.

Technical Abstract: Attractant/toxicant combinations have potential for suppression of pests of both lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and Oriental persimmon, Diospyros kaki L., in Hawaii. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the koa seedworm, Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler), and the litchi fruitmoth, C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are pests of lychee that can cause several types of fruit defects, including holes, stains, and release of fruit juices. To minimize such damage, field studies were conducted using a spinosad-based bait (GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait) to control oriental fruit fly, and an attract and kill product (Last Call) to control Cryptophlebia spp. Cryptophlebia spp. infestation was more than three-fold greater than infestation by oriental fruit fly in each of the lychee orchards included in the study. For both pests, there was no significant difference in infestation rate or infestation-related fruit damage between control and treatment orchards. Further research is needed to determine threshold population levels in lychee where bait spraying for oriental fruit fly suppression would be of economic value. In addition, improved attract and kill products and/or larger treatment areas may be needed to provide satisfactory levels of fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp. suppression. In persimmon, cultivation in Hawaii has had a persistent problem of loss through infestation by the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Recently, a mass trapping program using a three-component synthetic protein bait has been used in Hawaii which has shown promise in suppressing Mediterranean fruit fly populations in persimmon orchards except under conditions where an adjacent favored alternate host, coffee (Coffea arabica L.), bore mature fruits before and during the persimmon season. To improve Mediterranean fruit fly population suppression in this situation, we sprayed coffee plants weekly with GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait, starting before persimmon fruits became susceptible to sting damage. The bait spray strongly suppressed the C. capitata population level and led to reduced infestation levels in both coffee cherries and persimmon fruits. The success of suppression efforts through the use of mass trapping and bait sprays have encouraged consideration of developing other tree fruit crops such as peach, Prunus persica (L.), and loquat, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., which have received little attention because of heavy C. capitata infestation.

Last Modified: 9/22/2014
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