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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Characterization of Anthocyanins and Proanthocyanidins in Some Varieties of Ribes, Aronia and Sumbucus and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

Authors
item Prior, Ronald - ACNC/USDA
item Wu, Xianli - ACNC/UAMS
item Gu, Liwei - ACNC/UAMS
item Mckay, S - CORNELL UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 11, 2004
Publication Date: December 29, 2004
Citation: Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Gu, L., Mckay, S. 2004. Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some varieties of ribes, aronia and sumbucus and their antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52(26):7846-56.

Interpretive Summary: Anthocyanins (ACNs) and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are two classes of flavonoids found in fruits and berries. ACNs are the components that give the dark red/blue colors to many berries. In this study we identified and determined the concentrations in 7 varieties of Ribes nigrum (black currant) and Ribes rubrum (red current, 'Red Lake'), 6 varieties of Ribes grossularia (gooseberries), Aronia melonacarpa (chokeberry) and Sambucus nigra (elderberry). Thirty-one different ACNs were detected in these berries, but not every ACN was observed in each berry. A number of minor anthoxyanins were identified from these berries for the first time. Among the berries studied in this report and in berries in general, chokeberry has the highest total ACN concentrations (1480 mg/100g fresh weight (FW)); whereas the lowest total ACN concentration in the berries studied was found in the gooseberry variety 'Careless', which contained only 0.07 mg/100mg FW. Two varieties of gooseberries ('Marigold' and 'Leveller") did not contain any anthocyanins. Total procanthocyanidin concentrations in the berries studied ranged from 23 to 664 mg/ 100g FW in elderberry and chokeberry, respectively. Large polymers were the predominant components (>65% w/w) in most of the berries. The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities when measured and the total antioxidant capacity varied from 21 umol Trolox Equivalents/g FW in "Careless' gooseberry to 161 umol TE/g FW in chokeberry. Total phenolics in the berries in general paralleled hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. Many of these berries are being considered for commercialization within the U.S. because of positive health effects that have been observed in animal and human experiments.

Technical Abstract: Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins were characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with a diode array and/or flourescent detector in 7 varieties of Ribes nigrum (black currant) and Ribes rebrum (red currant, 'Red Lake'), 6 varieties of Ribes Grossularia (gooseberries), Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) and Sambucus nigra (elderberry). Thirty-one different anthocyanins were detected in these berries, but not every anthocyanin was observed in each berry. A number of minor anthocyanins were identified from these berries for the first time. The concentrations of individual anthocyanins in all the berries was quantified using relevant anthocyanidin 3-glucoside standards. Among the berries studied in this report and in berries in general, chokeberry has the highest total anthocyanin concentrations (1480 mg/100g fresh weight (FW)); wheras the lowest total anthocyanin concentration in the berries studied was found in the gooseberry variety 'Careless', which contained only 0.07 mg/100g FW. Two varieties of gooseberries ('Marigold' and 'Leveller') did not contain any anthocyanins. Total proanthocyanidin concentrations in the berries studied ranged from 23 to 664 mg/100g FW in elderberry and chokeberry, respectively. Procyanidin or prodelphinidin polymers were the predominant components (>65% w/w) in most of the berries. The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC fl) procedure. The total antioxidant capacity varied from 21 umol TE/G FW in 'Careless' gooseberry to 161 umol TE/G FW in chokeberry. Total phenolics in the berries in general paralleled hydrophilic antioxidant capacity.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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