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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Atmospheric Volatilization and Distribution of (Z) & (E)-1,3-Dichloropropene in Field Beds with and Without Plastic Covers

Authors
item Thomas, J - UNIV OF FLORIDA
item Allen, Leon
item Mccormack, L - UNIV OF FLORIDA
item Vu, Joseph
item Dickson, D - UNIV OF FLORIDA
item 0U, L - UNIV OF FLORIDA

Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 15, 2004
Publication Date: December 31, 2004
Citation: Thomas, J.E., Allen Jr, L.H., Mccormack, L.A., Vu, J.C., Dickson, D.W., 0u, L.T. 2004. Atmospheric volatilization and distribution of (z)- & (e)-1,3-dichloropropene in field beds with and without plastic covers. Journal of Environmental Science and Health.. v. B39, p. 709-723.

Interpretive Summary: The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) might be a replacement for methyl bromide when it is phased out in 2005. USDA-ARS and University of Florida scientists at Gainesville compared the amounts of surface emissions and patterns of subsurface diffusion of 1,3-D in bedded Florida sandy soil, with or without plastic covers. The commercial fumigant Telone II was injected at a 12-inch depth in 40-inch wide soil beds, which were then covered with a virtually impermeable film of plastic (VIF), a polyethylene film (PE), or left uncovered (bare). To measure concentrations of the fumigant in the soil, four sets of probes were installed at depths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36 inches. Twenty hours after injection, most of the 1,3-D had moved upward from 12 inches to the 2-8 inch layer. Regardless of bed cover treatment, little downward movement of the fumigant occurred. The VIF covered beds retained more fumigant in the soil air than PE or bare soil. In addition, VIF provided more uniform distribution of the fumigant than PE or no cover. Also, VIF retarded surface emissions of the fumigant more effectively than PE or no soil cover. Thus, use of VIF should provide better soil fumigation with less atmospheric pollution.

Technical Abstract: The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) might be a replacement for methyl bromide when it is phased out in 2005. The objective was to compare amounts of surface emission and patterns of subsurface diffusion of (Z) and (E) isomers of 1,3-D in bedded Florida sandy soil, with or without plastic covers. The commercial fumigant Telone II with equal amounts of both isomers was injected in three traces at a 30-cm depth in 100-cm wide beds, which were then covered with virtually impermeable film (VIF), polyethylene film (PE), or left uncovered (bare). Four sets of probes were installed for sampling soil air at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 cm. Twenty hours after injection, most of both isomers had moved upward from 30 cm to the 5-20 cm layer. Regardless of bed cover treatment, little downward movement of either isomer occurred. The (Z)-1,3-D diffused more rapidly than (E)-1,3-D. The VIF covered beds retained more of both isomers (concentrations were higher) in the soil air than PE or bare soil. In addition, VIF cover provided more uniform distribution of both isomers than PE cover or no cover. Also, VIF retarded surface emissions of both isomers from soil more effectively than PE or no soil cover.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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