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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Alternatives to Methyl Bromide - the Challenge of Field Nurseries and Perennial Crops.

Authors
item Schneider, Sally
item Trout, Thomas
item Gerik, James
item Browne, Greg
item Ajwa, Husein - UC DAVIS

Submitted to: Organization of Nematologists of Tropical America
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: October 1, 2004
Publication Date: December 31, 2004
Citation: Schneider, S.M., Trout, T.J., Gerik, J.S., Browne, G.T., Ajwa, H.A. 2004. Alternatives to methyl bromide - the challenge of field nurseries and perennial crops.. Organization of Nematologists of Tropical America. Nematropica 34:114-115.

Interpretive Summary: Methyl bromide (MB) has commonly been used to meet the challenge of providing effective nematode control when replanting perennial crops and when producing clean propagative material. In perennial replant situations, effective control is needed for the first several years to produce an orchard or vineyard that will remain productive over the expected life of the crop, which can exceed 50 years. Furthermore, nematodes in roots which remain in the soil after the previous crop is removed, must be killed. In field trials under vineyard replant conditions, after six growing seasons, shank-injected iodomethane and drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) provided control of Meloidogyne spp. and Tylenchulus semipenetrans comparable to MB. In a similar field trial, after three growing seasons, shank and drip-applied iodomethane (IM) and propargyl bromide, and drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene+chloropicrin (InLine) provided control comparable to MB. Clean propagative material regulations often require that field nursery crops meet a high standard, such as no detectable plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance. In field trials with natural infestations of Meloidogyne spp., tarped applications of 1,3D+chloropicrin (Telone C35), IM+chloropicrin, and chloropicrin alone resulted in one-year grapevine crops that were free of detectable nematodes. In the two-year tree crops, tarped IM+chloropicrin and Telone C35 produced trees with no detectable nematodes. In a two-year rose nursery trial, Telone C35 (tarped), InLine, Telone EC, IM+chloropicrin (shank and drip-applied), and drip-applied chloropicrin resulted in plants with no detectable plant parasitic nematodes. All of these trials were conducted on sandy loam soils. Trials have been initiated in finer-textured soils to further evaluate these treatments.

Technical Abstract: Methyl bromide (MB) has commonly been used to meet the challenge of providing effective nematode control when replanting perennial crops and when producing clean propagative material. In perennial replant situations, effective control is needed for the first several years to produce an orchard or vineyard that will remain productive over the expected life of the crop, which can exceed 50 years. Furthermore, nematodes in roots which remain in the soil after the previous crop is removed, must be killed. In field trials under vineyard replant conditions, after six growing seasons, shank-injected iodomethane and drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) provided control of Meloidogyne spp. and Tylenchulus semipenetrans comparable to MB. In a similar field trial, after three growing seasons, shank and drip-applied iodomethane (IM) and propargyl bromide, and drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene+chloropicrin (InLine) provided control comparable to MB. Clean propagative material regulations often require that field nursery crops meet a high standard, such as no detectable plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance. In field trials with natural infestations of Meloidogyne spp., tarped applications of 1,3D+chloropicrin (Telone C35), IM+chloropicrin, and chloropicrin alone resulted in one-year grapevine crops that were free of detectable nematodes. In the two-year tree crops, tarped IM+chloropicrin and Telone C35 produced trees with no detectable nematodes. In a two-year rose nursery trial, Telone C35 (tarped), InLine, Telone EC, IM+chloropicrin (shank and drip-applied), and drip-applied chloropicrin resulted in plants with no detectable plant parasitic nematodes. All of these trials were conducted on sandy loam soils. Trials have been initiated in finer-textured soils to further evaluate these treatments.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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