Submitted to: Journal of Food Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 26, 2005
Publication Date: July 1, 2005
Citation: Ledbetter, C.A., Palmquist, D.E. 2005. Comparing physical measures and mechanical cracking products of 'Nonpareil'almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb) with two advanced breeding selections. Journal of Food Engineering. 76:232-237. Interpretive Summary: California's 1.1 billion dollar almond industry is dependent upon bees to cross-pollenize the 500,000+ acres of trees each year. Climatic factors can cause problems with bees and affect the annual yield of almonds. The use of specific almond varieties to optimize cross-pollenization can be a benefit in boosting annual nut yield. Almond selections from a breeding program have been evaluated for their specific capacity to match bloom periods and become effective pollenizers for important almond varieties. Several almond selections were identified that effectively pollenize and match important kernel characteristics of the important Nonpareil almond variety. The development and utilization of new and efficient pollenizers for Nonpareil almond will ensure that yield will not be limited by problems during the bloom period.
Technical Abstract: Kernels of Nonpareil almond and advanced breeding almond accessions 23.5-16 and 23-122 were evaluated for similarities and differences in important kernel characteristics. These three almond accessions did not differ significantly in kernel mass, kernel dimensions length and width, nor in kernel color coordinates, luminosity and hue. Nonpareil kernels were observed to be significantly (p </= 0.01) thicker than kernels of accessions 23.5-16 or 23-122. Chroma value of Nonpareil kernels was significantly higher (p </= 0.01) than that of accession 23-122, but did not differ significantly from that of accession 23.5-16. Sticktight content varied significantly (p </= 0.01) amongst the three almond accessions prior to cracking bulked samples. The cracking treatment significantly reduced (p </= 0.01) sticktight content in each of the almond accessions and a significant interaction (p </= 0.01) was observed between almond accession and cracking treatment with regard to sticktight content. Nonpareil and accession 23.5-16 did not differ significantly in sticktight content either prior to or after the cracking treatment. The three almond accessions varied significantly (p </= 0.01) in the various classes of kernels after the cracking treatment.