Submitted to: American Association for the Advancement of Science Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 30, 2003
Publication Date: February 16, 2004
Citation: Lim, C.E. 2004. New direction in fish feeds and feeding: long tern implication. American Association for the Advancement of Science Meeting. Technical Abstract: Aquaculture production has expanded rapidly in the past decade. Paralleling the growth of the industry has been the intensification of aquaculture production leading to an increased use of compound feeds. Historically, fish meal has been used in feeds for most aquaculture species. However, due to the limited supply and rising cost of fish meal, much attention has been devoted to progressively substitute fish meal with alternative protein sources which are less expensive and more readily available. Byproducts of the animal rendering industry such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal and their combination can be used to partially or totally replace fish meal, depending on fish species. Poultry byproduct meal has also been used successfully as partial or total replacement of fish meal. The nutritional value of feather meal is poorer than that of poultry byproduct meal. Oil seed byproducts such as soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal, because of their availability and low cost, are the most promising alternative protein sources for fish feeds in the future. Studies have shown, however, that high levels of these plant ingredients usually resulted in poor performance due to reduced feed consumption, deficiency of essential amino acids, and/or presence of anti-nutritional factors and toxins. Supplementation of deficient amino acids with crystalline amino acids has proven effective in some fish species. Dietary addition of exogenous enzyme, phytase, has been shown to increase the phytin phosphorus availability to numerous fish species. Feed consumption can also be improved by dietary addition of palatability enhancers.