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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Use of Steinernematid Nematodes for Post Harvest Control of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Amyelois Transitella in Fallen Pistachios

Authors
item SIEGEL, JOEL
item Lacey, Lawrence
item Fritts, Robert - CERTIS USA
item Higbee, Bradley - PARAMOUNT FARMING CO.
item Noble, Patricia

Submitted to: Journal of Biological Control
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 11, 2003
Publication Date: March 1, 2004
Citation: Siegel, J.P., Lacey, L.A., Fritts, R., Higbee, B.S., Noble, P.M. Use of steinernematid nematodes for post harvest control of navel orangeworm (lepidoptera: pyralidae) Amyelois Transitella in fallen pistachios. Journal of Biological Control 30(2):410-417.

Interpretive Summary: The ability of two species insect pathogenic nematodes to control the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, a serious field pest of almonds and pistachios was investigated in a series of field experiments. Four trials employing 1-m2plots were conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 in Madera County, CA. The two species of nematode evaluated were Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and the target was fallen pistachios and almonds infested with the NOW. A total of 4,300 larvae were recovered from 17,593 laboratory-infested pistachios (24.4% average infestation) and 1,827 larvae were recovered from 6,425 naturally infested almonds (28.4% average infestation). Nematodes were applied with a backpack sprayer at concentrations ranging from 5-100 infective juveniles (IJs)/cm2 (10 IJs/cm2 was assessed in all four trials) in 374ml/m2 water. S. carpocapsae was more effective than the formulations tested of S. feltiae in pistachios and produced > 72% mortality at a concentration of 10 IJs/cm2 when nighttime temperatures were above freezing. S. carpocapsae was equally effective in bare and leaf-covered plots and persisted longer in sandier soil (8 weeks) than did S. feltiae. Our trials demonstrated that S. carpocapsae can play a role in the post harvest control of navel orangeworm and that the formulation tested produced greater mortality than formulations of S. feltiae applied at the same concentration.

Technical Abstract: Four trials employing 1-m2plots were conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 in Madera County, CA, to evaluate the ability of two species of nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) to control navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), in fallen infested pistachios and almonds. The plots were located in two 16.2 ha blocks of pistachio trees and the soil type was sandy loam. A total of 4,300 larvae were recovered from 17,593 laboratory-infested pistachios (24.4% average infestation) and 1,827 larvae were recovered from 6,425 naturally infested almonds (28.4% average infestation). Nematodes were applied with a backpack sprayer at concentrations ranging from 5-100 infective juveniles (IJs)/cm2 (10 IJs/cm2 was assessed in all four trials) in 374ml/m2 water. S. carpocapsae was more effective than the formulations tested of S. feltiae in pistachios and produced > 72% mortality at a concentration of 10 IJs/cm2 when nighttime temperatures were above freezing. S. carpocapsae was equally effective in bare and leaf-covered plots and persisted longer in sandier soil (8 weeks) than did S. feltiae. S. carpocapsae has the potential to multiply in the field; 51.3% of the cadavers examined 21 d after application contained nematodes (n=226). Our trials demonstrated that S. carpocapsae can play a role in the post harvest control of navel orangeworm and that the formulation tested produced greater mortality than formulations of S. feltiae applied at the same concentration.

Last Modified: 8/19/2014
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