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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Stored-Grain Areawide Integrated Pest Management Program

Authors
item Flinn, Paul
item Hagstrum, David - 5430-05-30 RETIRED
item Reed, Carl - KANSAS STATE UNIV
item Phillips, Thomas - OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV

Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 11, 2002
Publication Date: June 1, 2003
Citation: FLINN, P.W., HAGSTRUM, D.W., REED, C., PHILLIPS, T.W. STORED-GRAIN AREAWIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 59:614-618. 2003.

Interpretive Summary: Recently, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS (Manhattan, Kansas), Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience, or were calendar based. We found that the best method for sampling insects, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. We developed software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) that analyzes insect-damage risk for each bin. The insect data is entered into the computer program that analyzes current risk, and predicts future insect population growth based on grain temperature and moisture. SGA Pro was tested during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at risk. The sampling equipment and risk analysis software developed and tested during this project has several advantages over traditional, calendar-based fumigation. Treating bins only when insects exceed economic thresholds, and treating only the bins that need to be treated minimizes the risk of economic losses from unexpected insect problems and reduces the cost of pest management and the use of fumigant. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety by reducing exposure to phosphine, and reduces the probability that insect populations will develop resistance to phosphine.

Technical Abstract: Recently, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS (Manhattan, Kansas), Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. Elevators were chosen for the project so that the wheat could be followed as it moved from farm to country elevator to terminal elevator to end-user. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing insect pests in elevators. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience, or were calendar based. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interpreted insect sampling data, and provided grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate, or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being safe, and in both cases, insect density was only high at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insects exceed economic thresholds; thus, reducing the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety, and reduces harm to the environment.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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