Submitted to: Federation Of European Microbiological Societies Yeast Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 17, 2002
Publication Date: March 1, 2003
Citation: KURTZMAN, C.P., ROBNETT, C.J. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG YEASTS OF THE "SACCHAROMYCES COMPLEX" DETERMINED FROM MULTIGENE SEQUENCE ANALYSES. FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES YEAST RESEARCH. 2003. V. 3. P. 417-432. Interpretive Summary: Yeasts in the "Saccharomyces complex" represent the major industrial fermentation microorganisms used worldwide. Traditional uses include manufacture of bread, beer and other alcohol beverages, fuel alcohol and citric acid. Recombinant strains are used to produce insulin and other pharmaceuticals. Genetic relationships among the 75 species in this complex are poorly known. The species were compared with one another using differences in the DNA sequences of 8 different genes. This multigene analysis allowed separation of the species into 14 genetically defined groups. From this information, genetic and physiological characteristics can be predicted for each group, and each group can be rapidly identified from group-specific DNA sequences.
Technical Abstract: Species of Saccharomyces, Arxiozyma, Eremothecium, Hanseniaspora (anamorph Kloeckera), Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Pachytichospora, Saccharomycodes, Tetrapisispora, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces, as well as three related anamorphic species assigned to Candida (C. castellii, C. glabrata, C. humilis), were phylogenetically analyzed from divergence in genes of the rDNA repeat (18S, 26S, ITS), single copy nuclear genes (translation elongation factor 1-a, actin-1, RNA polymerase II) and mitochondrially encoded genes (small subunit rDNA, cytochrome oxidase II). Single gene phylogenies were congruent for well supported terminal lineages but deeper branches were not well resolved. Combined analysis of the gene sequences resolved the 75 species compared into 14 clades, many of which do not correspond to currently circumscribed genera.