Submitted to: Aquaculture America Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: November 23, 2002
Publication Date: February 18, 2003
Citation: DELANEY, M.A. THE POTENTIAL USE OF N-HALAMINE DISINFECTANTS FOR DISEASE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT IN AQUACULTURE: AN OVERVIEW. AQUACULTURE AMERICA CONFERENCE. 2003. Technical Abstract: Many environmental stressors are associated with the intensive culture of fish. These include poor water quality, overcrowding, insufficient dissolved oxygen, rapid environmental changes, poor nutrition and poor handling practices. The stress induced by these environmental and management practices can result in reduced growth, poor feed conversion as well as increased susceptibility to disease. Outbreaks of most parasites and many bacteria, including Flavobacterium columnare can also follow stressful episodes and if not remedied disease can occur. Few therapeutants are available for the treatment of disease in fish populations, fewer still that will work in both fresh and saltwater. One class of compounds, N-halamines, originally developed as human drinking water disinfectants, has shown promise against external parasites and bacteria of both freshwater and marine fish. The compounds are 1,3-dichloro 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (DC) and 1-chloro 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC). N-halamine compounds are so named because of the presence of one or two chlorine atoms (halogens) attached to a carbon ring structure. The precursor of these compounds is a stabilizer of free chlorine or a chlorine adjuvant. The stabilizing action of the ring structure reduces the toxicity of the chlorine to the animal and prevents bromine substitution in saltwater applications. This presentation will provide an overview of the research conducted to date using these compounds in the treatment and prevention of diseases in fish and shellfish as well as providing an update on the progress made towards establishing an INAD.